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VOL.8, NO. 3 

Publication Office: 4517 Harford Road, Baltimore, Maryland 21214 

SEPT-OCT 1971 


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51.00 PER ISSUE 

liWho Reall y Started World War II?j 

FULL YEAR $4.98 




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. . . a losing venture published bi-monthly 
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ber. The General is published by The Aval on 
Hill Company almost solely for the cultural 
edification of the serious game aficionado. It 
helps sell our merchandise, too. 

Articles from subscribers are considered 
for publication at the whim and fancy of 
members of our erudite editorial staff and 
company baseball team. To merit considera- 
tion, articles must be typewritten double 
spaced and not exceed 7,000 words. Ac- 
companying examples and diagrams must be 
drawn in black or red ink. Payment for 
accepted articles is made according to the 
dictates of the voting subscribers. 

A full-year subscription costs $4.98 {over- 
seas subscribers add $6.00 to cover airmail.! 
Back issues cost $1.00 each: out-of-stock 
issues ere Vol. h No's. I, 2, 3, 4, 6; Vol. 3, 
No. 7; Vol. 4, No. 4. 

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copvtioni 1971 a ho Awaion mil comoanv 

BalUmuTtf, Maryland. Printwd in USA 

Avalon Hill Philosophy - Part 29 



" The streets of our country are in turmoil. 
The universities are filled with students rebelling 
and rioting. Communists are seeking to destroy 
our country. Yes, the republic is in danger from 
within and without. We need law and order. 
Without it our nation cannot survive ..." 

If you think that's a typical Spiro Agnew 
commentary on what's happening today, be pre- 
pared lor a shock: it's an excerpt from a 
campaign speech made in 1932 by one A. Hitler, 
who went on to promise . , . "elect us and wc 
shall restore law and order. Wc shall by law and 
order be respected among the nations of the 

On the strength of this promise, it is easy to 
see why the infamous Third Reich came into 
being with Hitler ascending as the sole master ot 

The rise of the Third Reich is the subject of 

{continued page 3) 

In this installment of the Avalon Hill Philos- 
ophy we turn the podium over to one of our 
oldest, and certainly highest paid, "irregular" 
employees. Jim Dunnigan has been working for 
us since 7966, primarily designing games (includ- 
ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR II). He has not teen 
Idle in other areas. His {"incorrigible" as he puts 
it) curiosity has lad him to poke into just about 
every facet of the game business, often to our 
benefit for he has not been stingy with his advice 
and observations. 

Jim is also the president of the Simulations 
Publications Corporation, a New York firm which 
he founded. Simulations, in addition to doing 
considerable contract work for Avalon Hill and 
other game publishers, also publishes Strategy & 
Tactics magazine (among others). S&T is one of 
the oldest, and certainly the most successful, 
imitator of the General. In fact, they have done 
the General one better by publishing games right 
in the magazine along with the history articles, 
etc., that comprise the rest of the magazine. Jim 
also is the editor of S& T ('natch). 

Jim came to write this installment of the AH 
Philosophy by way of a request, on our part, for 
permission to reprint an article from Game 
Design (another Simulation's product) for the 
General. About the same time Jim saw the 
July August issue of the General and, from our 
vantage point, went through the ceiling at a few 
of the things said in the last installment of the 
Avalon Hill Philosophy. We stand corrected on 
some of the things said, partly due to ignorance, 
partly due to crossed wires. What with all the 
information flowing between Baltimore and New 
York it's suprlsing that worse occurences don't 

Specifically, the following errors in fact oc- 
curred. FLYING FORTRESS was withdrawn 
from the Luftwaffe design competition before we 
reached a decision on which game to publish. 
This was done because Jim had reached the 
conclusion (with which we still don't entirely 
agree) that air games do not have sufficient 
appeal. He also wanted to re-work FLYING 
FORTRESS but didn't have the time. 

At this point Simulations had iust completed 

PANZERBLITZ and had to beg off participating 
in the production of our Spring '71 game 
(LUFTWAFFE). Our interpretation of the results 
tests were also a bit off. This is understandable as 
Jim uses a computer and some other mathe 
matical mumbo-jumbo in interpreting his test 
results and we're not always sure, after he's given 
us a report, who's on first 

The scoreboard, as we understand it now, is 
supposed to read like this; using the popularity of 
PANZERBLITZ (which scored highest on the 
latest available survey) as 100, LUFTWAFFE 
scores 76,1, FLYING FORTRESS 72.1 and 12 
O'CLOCK HIGH (Luftwaffe's predecessor) 66.9. 
So in this case we were both right and wrong. 
Also, it was pointed out to us that the seeming 
inaccuracy in FLYING FORTRESS pertaining to 
the use of B-29's, P-5Ws and P-80's was clearly 
marked as a "What if?" scenario Order of Battle. 
However, on the earliest (unpublished) prototypes 
of the game this was not made explicit. Again we 
were right and wrong. Now that the truth has 
been served we will turn the soap box over to 

The bulk of this article is an abridgement of 

the Designer's Notes column from GAME DE- 
SIGN NO. 3. Games you see mentioned in the 
article that are unfamiliar to you (such as 
were published by Simulations, 

One may wonder, "Why all this innovation?". 
Is it innovation for the sake of innovation? To a 
certain extent, yes. A goad game should be 
simple enough to be played and understood 
easily. This means that you can't have too much 
"dirt" in it. "Dirt" being defined as the necessary 
mechanics (read rules) to make the game go. Too 
much dirt and there isn't much energy or 
attention left for what the game is trying to say. 
How does the game say what it's trying to say? 
By allowing the players to "play" with It. But 
you don't get much playing done if it takes all 
your energy and attention just to get the play- 
thing going. Try to cover too much in one game 
and yau cover nothing. What this all boils down 
to is the fact that you should build into the game 
only the most important elements of the situa 
tion you are studying. Thus the game on the 
Franco-Prussian war should emphasize the fact 
that two armies biundered into each other for 
most of the "campaign." A series of errors and 
chance engagements, so to speak. This was one of 
the more important aspects of the campaign on a 
strategic level. The armies blundered in a fashion 
familiar to armies before the use of air reconnais- 
sance. Without this one element you can't really 
have a game that realistically recreates the cam- 
paign. But this does not apply to all pre-air 
reconnaissance campaigns. The Leipzig game, for 
example, shows that the "central position" was 
more Important. Particularly in view of Napo- 
leon's superior use of what reconnaissance then 
available to him. This, however, was unique to 
campaigns conducted by Napoleon. The American 
Civil W3r had no Napoleon. Most campaigns were 
of the "blunder" type. 

Can you see it now? Concentrate on the most 
important aspect(s) of the situation. Do it well. 
To do it well you often have to create new ways 
ot doing it. Looking at things this way, game- 
simulations have gone through three distinct 
phases so far. When this type of game was first 
developed in the mid-'50's the emphasis was on 
re-creation of modern "semi-strategic" (divisional) 
level simulations. With few exceptions this "rut" 
continued right up until 1914. The sole excep- 
tions being the naval games (MIDWAY and 
BISMARCK) which, of course, required a dif- 
fered approach, JUTLAND and 1914 were hints 
of another solution, in mv mind an incorrect one. 
Bigger does not mean better. ANZIO proved this. 
ANZIO was supposed to be the "compromise" 
game between the unwieldiness of 1914 (although 
it's strong historical "realism" was considered, 
with some validity, to be a positive feature) and 
the popular "playable" simplicity of BATTLE OF 
didn't work. ANZIO will no longer be available 
once the current inventory is sold. JUTLAND 
will also be dropped, as will the other naval 
games, through no fault of their own, of course. 
Naval games simply don't sell. GUADALCANAL 
will also go. This was a game that went out of its 
way to ignore those elements of the campaign 
which were most important (mainly naval and 
air). Earlier games, for all their crudeness, were at 
least simple. Often they did not rero in on the 
critical aspects of the situation they covered. But 


thev were simple enough tor most players to 
handle. And their simplicity allowed what 
elements of the campaign that were shown to be 
explored. An outstanding example of this is the 
Initial force inbalance and later weaker side build 
GRAD. D-DAY also has it to a certain extent, 
except that the attacker was initially weaker. The 
first "wave" of games (ending with JUTLAND) 
showed too many people that a much better job 
could be done. The reasons why Avalon Hill did 
not solve the problem and why they did do what 
they did are the subject of a future article. Such 
matters don't really concern us here. The 191 4 
"solution" was less a solution than it was a probe 
in the direction of alternatives. Out of the 
1914/ANZIO debacle came the realization that 
each game must be a unique problem with unique 
solutions. Thus came the "third" wave, mainly 
the Test Series and S&T games (including 
PANZERBLITZ). Each game attempted to treat 
its own problems with unique solutions. At 
present this seems to be the "solution." At least 
until something better comes down the pike. 
Which will probably happen. 

Taking these games as the current "state of the 
art" they can be easily understood by simply 
applying the "uniqueness" principle to whatever 
game you are doing. This does not mean that 
every game must be as simple as, say GRUNT, 


- continued 
from page 2 

Avalon Hill's brand new game - ORIGINS OF 
WORLD WAR II. Extensively researched, 
ORIGINS is probably the most authentic historic- 
al documentation of the pre-war years ever 
published. That's because over 100 different 
works were consulted in the preparation of this 
brilliant expose of who really started World War 

And if you think Germany started the war, 
wrong again, France, Britain, Russia, and the 
United States could have stopped Germany be- 
fore the shooting began. Why didn't they? 

finds out. The game re-creates the political 
battlefield as it existed between 1935 and 1940. 
It is a 2 to 5 player game with each player taking 
the part of the diplomats or the major powers, 
armed with the same diplomatic muscle of his 
real life counlerparl. 

The game-set includes five scenarios of varying 
political objectives. For discussion, here, we refer 
to the HISTORICAL GAME in which 5 partici- 
pants represent the nations of Great Britain, 
France, Germany, Russia and the United States. 
A typical game takes six turns which last approxi- 
mately one hour. Object is to gain understandings 
with certain nations and control over others. To 
do so, players pair off in efforts at "peaceful 
coexistence." When such cooperation tails, or one 
player disgracefully reneges on hit: deal, such 
conflicts must he resulv^id. Players than consult 
the Diplomatic Conflict Table which is slanted in 
favor of the player who has exercised the best 
political strategy. 

ORIGINS will retail for 58.98 in stores, and 
will be available September 25lh un. Beginning 
October 1, 1971 we will at'eept mailorders. BUT 

il will cost yiiu SI ,00 more through the mails 
than at the retail level. To order direct, send 
$8.98 plus Sl.00 for handling - total of $9.98 - 
to "Order Department," The Avalon Hill Com- 
pany, 4517 Harford Road, Baltimore, Md. 21214. 

KURSK or TAC 14. A large minority of game 
players (but still a minority, we KNOW that) 
desire more complex "muscle" games (as we call 
them). current example is WAR IN THE 
EAST. But for all its complexity it still concen- 
trates on those aspects ol the campaign that wore 
most important. There is no "dirt" for the sake 
of "dirt." At the same time the game is struc- 
tured so that as the more complex versions are 
played the game merely gains in realism without 
changing into a "different" game 

All the foregoing was a roundabout way of 
driving home the point that, for a game to do 
what it's supposed to do, it must use unique rules 
and other design features in order to get its 
message across. This presupposes, of course, a 
fairly set idea about what the "ideal" game 
should be. Stated briefly, my idea of the "ideal" 
game is one that is fairly easy to play (KURSK 
and 1940 are about right, I feel) and place major 
emphasis on the most important aspects of the 
campaign (at least as far as the designer is 
concerned). These two games fit the bill, I feel. 
Even though KURSK and 1940 use essentially 
the same play mechanics. This, of course, is not 

as contradictory as it may appear. Both games 
covered campaigns having both motorized and 
non-motorized units, with air power. The scale 
was about the same, each hex in 1940 equalled 
13 kms, in KURSK 1G kms (identical to the 
1914 scale). Each game used two day moves. 
There WERE differences, however. The French 
army had a psychological problem the Russian 
army had already gotten over. The German army 
was basically the same. In 1940 the Germans 
have the edge, in KURSK the Russians do, 1940 
emphasizes the German need to destroy the 
French army as an effective force. In KURSK 
they must do the same, although because only 
40% of the eastern front forces are involved in 
KURSK (compered to 90% In 1940) an absolute 
decision is not possible, or at least difficult to 
obtain. More difficult than in 1940. 

The question now arises, how does one isolate 
the "key" problems in a situation so that they 
may be incorporated into a game, This is where 
the skills normally listed under the job classifica- 
tion "Historian" come into play. This point has 
probably been belabored much too often. It is 
true, though, you must be able to do your 
homework. A "bad" game, in this respect, will 
not look bad taken by itself. But compare it to a 
game on the same subject done with attention to 
the historical particulars and the "non- 
researched" game usually comes out a decidedly 
second best. A few examples of this exist. 
the same situation. Yet few people will insist that 
STALINGRAD is a better game. Of course, 
BARBAROSSA has the advantage of better play 
mechanics. But these were developed BECAUSE 
of what research of the situation revealed. An 
other example is BATTLE OF THE BULGE and 
BASTOGNE. In this case BULGE has the better 
play mechanics (or simpler, at least). Still, 
BASTOGNE is clearly superior as an accurate 
re-creation of the campaign. 

Learning how to do historical research is 
another project unto itself. It's not really all that 
complicated, although it becomes easier to do 
and more productive the longer you're at it. This 
certainly does not disqualify amateurs, but you've 
got to start somewhere. I started late, not getting 
into military history and "science" (there's quite 
a lot of the technical stuff to be mastered) until I 
was 18, and in the army. I didn't really get 
around to DOING anything with all that acquired 
trivia until I was 22 years old, when I wrote the 
ARDENNES OFFENSIVE monograph (which 
also got me the job of designing JUTLAND1, 
Still, it took some BOD hours of research to do 


JUTLAND. If you are willing to spend the time 
on it you can research backgrounds for some 
game situations in a hundred hours or less, 
depending on your previous experience with the 
subject and material related to it. Once your data 
is assembled you have to "play" with it. This is 
what is usually construed of as "designing." This 
is also where you should convert the salient 
points of your research into game mechanics. Or, 
rather, into the important "aspects" of the game. 

All is not said in the game's mechanics. Such 

things as the scale and scope of the game, not, 
strictly speaking, mechanics, must be made to 
reflect the "points" you wish to emphasize in the 
game. This is important. I have mentioned before 
the importance of knowing what you want to sey 
in the game, and then trying to say it. Anyone 
who tries to create a true "simulation" ol an 
event is chasing after the "Holy Grail." There are 
too many limitations inherent in the "board 
game" format. Take a game which did try to do 
the impossible, 1914. Very realistic in its way, 
but how close did it REALLY come to "simula- 
tion?" What it gained in "realism" (not necessar- 
ily the same as "simulation") was not equal to 
what was lost in piayability. And, as had been 
said many times before, if a lot of people cannot 
play the game all that you have put into it is lost 
to a great number of people. As ye sow, so shall 
ye reap. 

Therefore, except for games with pretty much 
identical situations, you will have to develop 
fairly unique elements for each different game. 
Again, KURSK and 1940 are about as close as 
you're going to come in the way of "identical" 
games. And even then there are many very 
significant differences. The question, now, is 
exactly how does one build in these "unique 
elements?" Let's take 1940 and KURSK as 
examples (this way we examine two games in 
about the amount of time it takes to do one 
game). Of course, one of the "unique features" 
of both 1940 and KURSK was the "man for 
man" superiority of the Germans over their 
enemies. Part of this could be seen in the number 
of weapons each side's units had. The Germans 
were simply more heavily armed. This advantage 
tends to snowball. Tactics is important. German 
tactics was often superior. But this was not the 
chief German advantage. The main German 
advantage lay in all the "little" advantages they 
had. Deciding just how large their "advantage" 
was has to be done in conjunction with Combat 
Results Table construction, The CRT will show, 
in practice, what effect the German advantage 
has. There are two approaches to the CRT 
problem, both of which are usually combined 
belore you are finished. The first method is to 
take the "standard" casualty rates for the period 
(compiled, usually, from official sources, such as 
staff officer's manuals for the modern period), 
This sometimes works the first time around, but 
not usually. Moreoften you have to go to the 
second method. This entails compiling casualty 
figures for the hattle itself. In France 1940 the 
battle was, compared to KURSK, somewhat less 
bloody. More units were destroyed due to isola- 
tion than to violent combat. In KURSK out and 
out butchery was more the rule. The CRT's, of 
course, had a game that changes considerably 
from situation to situation. Even within the same 
game, as was the case with KURSK. All this, of 
course, is just scratching the surface. In future 
columns we will explore many game elements in 
more detail. For now, you ought to reflect on 
what was said this time. Reflection, as much as 
persistent physical effort, is responsible for bring- 
ing a game from one's mind to reality. 

GAME DESIGN is available from Simulations, 
34 East 23rd St., NY WOW. A one year, six 
issue, subscription is three dollars. 



Greater Luftwaffe Realism 

by Lou Zocchi 

Many fans have written to me asking if 
Luftwaffe could be played in monthly intervals 
instead of quarterly. In reply to those letters I 
would like to say that both of yon will be happy 
lo learn that il is passible. Bui before divulging 
how this can be done, I'd like to pass on a bit of 
wisdom learned at my mother's knee, or some 
other joint! Increased realism does not necessarily 
increase payability. As a matter of fact, too 
much realism can make a very interesting historic- 
al situation, utterly unplayable. 

A close study of the Campaign briefing booklet 
will show you exactly when each combating U.S. 
and German unit becomes available for combat. 
It also shows when the American units change 
equipment. I do not recommend playing monthly 
intervals because it causes the game to last 
between 20 and 30 hours, but when using 
Luftwaffe as a tie-in for a re-creation of WWII, 
time is no longer a consideration since games of 
this dimension take days or weeks to play out. 

If you would like to try monthly attack 
intervals, here is what must be done. Order two 
more sets of U.S. counters and one more set of 
German counters. Each American fighter group 
will take up both sides of one fighter unit 
counter. You can do the same for Ihe number 
units if you want to assume that bombers are 
able to withstand more punishment than fighters. 
If each counter is to represent roughly the same 
number of planes as every other counter, use the 
notes on unit strengths from the Campaign 
briefing booklet us your guide. 

Each full strengthened German playing piece 
will represent two gruppen of fighters instead of 
one full Geschwader. The German replacement 
rate is correspondingly paired down so that 3 
aircraft factories make one full strength fighter 
piece (two gruppen) each month. 

American replacement factors for bombers and 
fighters should be calculated from the actual 
number of each type of aircraft lost during WWII. 
Since your fighter counters now represent 75 
planes instead of the 1 50 they represented in the 
regulation game, you can multiply the number of 
fighter replacement factors by 2. Getting the 
proper number of bomber replacement factors 
depends largely upon what strength each bomber 
counter represents. 

When playing monthly attacks, a separate 
bomber must be sent to knock out each specific 
target complex within each city. In the regulation 
game, it is assumed that all the targets within a 
specific city are destroyed when the bomber 
passes over it. In the monthly version, a city such 
as Berlin with four complexes would have to be 
attacked by 4 separate bomber counters to 
destroy each of the complexes within it. A-20, 
A-26, & B-25's will fire like B 26's. 

One of Ihe reasons I have become known as a 
man outstanding in his field is because I designed 
Luftwaffe. The other reason is, that is where 
A.H. found me. I was trying to put out a fire in 
my bathroom at the time. Fortunately, it never 
reached the house! 

AH NOTE: Apparently it did reach his house. 
Zocchi if currently living in a box . . . feel free to 

write to him before he completely flips out at: 
2076 Cornm. Sq. Box J5S5, APO San Francisco 

T/Sgt. Lou Zocchi, a long-time advocate of battle 
games OS a form of adult relaxation, has received 
more than his share of chides concerning the 
childishness of playing games, especially for a 
living (which the royalties of Luftwaffe will 
certainly provide him with). 

For many years his own family called him 
"immature," due lo Ihcir kick of understanding. 
He recalled to our reporter the day the sititati<m 
came to a head: "I was sitting in my bathtub 
listening to the usual snide remarks about my 
immaturity. I made some rebuttal which my wife 
took such offense at that she came right in and 
sank all my boats." 

Now the good Sarge is on an airplane kick. Won't 
be as easy shooting down his planes, eh Lorelie 
old dear . , . ? 

.*. • -- 

Luftwaffe- a Battle of Wits... 

by Dennis Milbert 

One of the keys in finding a winning strategy 
of a particular game, lies in the examination of 
that game's Combat Results Table (CRT). When 
an ecstatic wargamer tears the plastic off his 
newly acquired copy of Luftwaffe, he finds a 
CRT that covers ihe entire front of the inside 
box. fortunately, due to AH emphasis on play- 
ability, Ihe CRT is extremely easy to use. But 
even so, a wargamer may shy away from a full 
scale analysis of all those little numbers. I 
performed the analysis since I was curious to see 
if a "magic" combat strength existed, where one 
could employ his FW-190's and obtain u maxi 
mum kill rate. The results are presented here for 
your consideration. 

Procedure: Basically this involved computing 
the kill rate one could expect on the average for 
each aircraft at each combat level. As you see, 
this could gel quite tedious (indeed it was), but 
an interesting result was derived. In ail cases 

aircraft effectiveness increases until a certain 
combat level is reached, thereafter, Effectiveness 
remains fairly constant no matter how high a 
combat level is reached. This means that 20 
factors of fighters will kill on the average twice as 
many aircraft as 10 factors. While this doesn't 
seem exactly earth shaking, it allows us to 
examine the idea of massing monstrous num- 
bers oT fighters before attacking. Because, no 
immediate benefit is gained from massing fighters. 
However, each aircraft has an Optimum Com- 
bat Level (OCL). If aircraft are employed at this 
level or above, the plane will have a maximum 
Kill Rate (KR). If your loyal fighters are used 
below the OCL, they will suffer a deterioration in 
performance. Lastly, I recomputed Ihe KR for 
fighters attacking superior types such as a P-47 
and a FW-190. This gives KR (-1) and KR (-2) 
for one or two columns being subtracted on the 

German Aircraft 





HK 162 




HE 219 
































KR (-2) 










American Aircraft 













1 I 
























Discussion: Because of the fact that the KR is 
constant Tor a wide range of values, an extremely 
powerful result can be derived thai was not 
immediately foreseen. Luftwaffe behaves in a 
manner that mathematicians describe as a differ- 
ential game. The equations are beyond the scope 
of this article and. it is interesting to note, 
Luftwaffe only approximates the situation that 
the equations describe exactly. The concept can 
best be illustrated by an example. 

Assume 16 factors of FW-l90"s jump a forma- 
tion of 24 B-24 factors. Because the KR of the 
FW-190 is 0.50, wc know it will kill 8 factors on 
its first turn. The B-24 KR is 0.25 so they will 
get 6 factors on their first lurn. Subtracting we 
have 10 FW-190's ami 16 H-24's for the second 
turn. The 10 FW-190's get 5 B-24's and the 16 
B-24's get 4 FW-190's. Now the new levels are 6 
FW-190's and 11 B24's. If the attack is pressed 
for another turn, we will have oh the average one 
FW-J90 factor and eight B-24 factors at the end 
of 4 turns of attack 

Once I his technique is grasped, the outcome 
for an air battle can be automatically determined. 
You can tell, before you commit your fighters, 
the probable outcome and how long it will take. 
It will be instructive to do another example. 

If 26 FW-190's attack 24 B-24's, the new levels 
will be: 20 fighters and 1 1 bombers for the 
Second turn, and 17 fighters and one bomber 
factor for the third turn. Remember, these are 
average results and statistical deviations will 

It can be seen from the examples that when 
sizable formations are encountered, the German 
can use every fighter he can gel. Not because 
larger numbers increase combat effectiveness, bid 
to insure enough fighters will survive bomber 
defensive fire. As was demonstrated, a difference 
of 10 factors means a quick victory or a bad 
defeat. German players, ALWAYS break off 
combat if you arc below the OCL and the 
formation consists of more than a lew factors. 
An examination of Basic Game strategies will 
illustrate all the concepts shown above, 

German Strategy: You should go for close 
escort fighters (if any) and bombers as soon as 
possible, Drop your tanks when you do this, 
because you must force the Amis to do the same. 
Then break off combat and refuel. And don't 
forget to maximize distance from bombers when 
doing this, air base attacks can get inconvenient. 
Shortly the enemy fighters must turn back, 
leaving you free to jump the main formation. If 
the Americans have a substantial number of 
secondary and diversionary strikes, assign a roving 
killer group or two, at OCL or better, to mop up 
what you can Needless to say, German strategy 
is to maximize combat after the "pre-emptive" 

American Strategy: This can best be described 
as exercising "psychological judo." Being where 
your opponent isn't will insure victory. An 
intelligent use of delayed strikes al widely sepa- 
rated targets will be an asset. Unfortunately, you 
have two conflicting means of gaining success. 
You must either, one, minimize bomber air time, 
or, two, maximize combat levels of your 
bombers. The first can be achieved by attacking 
nearby targets, like Amsterdam. In the more 
advanced games regions in North Germany hold 
amazing promise, especially when coupled with 
Baltic Sea raids. The second idea is achieved by 
using large bomber formations and close escort 

fighters to survive fighter attack. As has been 
shown, a stack of 24 factors can be quite hard to 
reduce, especially if fighters aren't available. In 
order for the formation to remain intact for as 
long as possible, you should attack a high density 
target area. And none of these are near the coast, 
at least in the Basic Game. Here the Osehcrsleben 
targets hold promise. This demonstrates why the 
Italian front remains secondary for air battles. 
While fighter airbases are sparse, so are targets 
and a few roving killer groups (at OCL + reserve) 
will sow havoc among the bombers. 

In closing, I wish to say that Luftwaffe is the 
best example or a battle of wits I have ever seen. 
While German strategy is somewhat mechanistic, 
he must try to foresee American plans. Converse- 
ly, the Ami that can keep the German off 
balance through raids, minimum bomber air time, 
and use of loriniitions can insure that the German 
panzers will not give much opposition to a D-Day 
Dennis Milbert 
2568 S. Palton Ct. 
Denver, Colo. 80219 

Bologna-Anzio Mini-Game 4 

by Tom Smiley 

The only problem with Anzio is thut nobody 
ever finishes it. Face-to-face it takes too mucli 
time. By mail it takes too much postage. This is 
sad because one of its main attractions is then 
missed. Everyone plays the first invasion, and the 
Diadem offensive; but few people get to the 
offensive on Bologna, and the Ho valley and this 
pari is just as exciting as the drive on Home: 

The Game begins on the September 1 turn, and 
goes through April IV. 

Victory Conditions: The Allies must pass 
through all cities except Piacenza and Brescia, 
and isolate Genova. The German must prevent 
the Aliied player from accomplishing his. 

The Germans sets up first on or behind the 
Gothic Line. As shown, it runs a wavy course 
from E-21 to V-22. 

On the Allied Ordei of Appearance, the 92nd 
and Brazilian divisions are already on board and 
are not brought on again. The British 78th 


. <*v*Mi 


division, which was in the Middle East, is brought 
on Oct. I, the other units arrive as shown. 









































7-7 12 




RT - Sept 1 


A L 








I 2-S 






























Allies have ports at Salerno, Naples, Anzio, and 
the Rome and Salerno invasion areas. They also 
have one counter accumulated. 

Allies have 10 repl. factors (5 sleps) accumu- 
lated, the Germans none. 

Italian Units may be brought into play. The 
German may station the MR and SM units in 
either Genova or LaSpecia. The Allies have the 

1st Armored Infantry Brigade and the Nembo 
division to place in the line anywhere. 

Hopefully you will enjoy the challenge of the 
Fall offensive against the Gothic line, and remem- 
ber, the Objective is Bologna. 
Tom Smiley 
204 So. Bradford 
Tampa, Fla. 33609 


Tom Ifazlett is the winner of this month 'i 
Golden Pen Award for his "Afrika Korps Thesis." 
reprinted by permission from Panzer fans i Maga- 
zine. This article was voted best of '70 by readers 
of Panzerfaust, 124 Warren Street, Sayre, Pernio. 

Although neglected by many who prefer more 
complex games, Afrika Korps must rank as one 
of the finest produced by Avalon Hill. The 
simplicity of the rules, while not detracting from 
the complex strategy, eliminates the necessity for 
constantly leafing through the rule book SO 
common with the more recent games. Thus, the 
players may concentrate on strategy instead of 
the rules. 

Some rules do need to be cleared up, however. 
Although the movement from EI8 directly to 
F19 has been stated to be an illegal maneuver 
many times, some people still try it. Don't let 
them succeed. 

The most controversial rulings deal with the 
capture of supply units, with the example on 
page 15 of the Battle Manual lending the way. 
Tile basis for disputing this ruling is that the 
captured supply unit must move through an 
enemy zone of control. Still, Avalon Hill must 
have been aware of that problem when they put 
the rule in. They have further shocked conserva- 
tive players by stating recently that supplies 
caplured as the result of an automatic victory 
may be used to sustain that attack. Going one 
Step farther, they say that isolated units may 
attack at automatic victory odds if the attack 
allows them to capture a supply to sustain the 
attack. Also, isolated units may attack if a supply 
unit can move next to (he attacking unit. For 
example, British units on X12 and VIO isolate all 
German units to the east if the only Axis supply 
is at W3, However, the supply may move up to 
V9 and sustain the attack of "isolated" units on 
U9 against VIO, All of these rulings have been 
confirmed by A.H. 


by Tom Hazlett 

AXIS FORCES: Though the Axis army does 
not consist of as many pieces as the Allied Army, 
it nearly always has more factors on hoard. The 
armored units can be concentrated into a very 
powerful force which can smash any Allied 
position. Besides being stronger, the German units 
are much faster than either the llnlians or Ihe 
Allies. Their speed enables them to penetrate 
deep behind the British lines, forcing them to 
surrender vast amounts of territory without a 
fight. Because of their many abilities, German 
units should be saved when possible, even at the 
cost of losing Italians. 

The Italian units, though slow and weak, are 
valuable as garrison and soak-off forces. They can 
add needed factors to a crucial attack. Heavy 
Italian losses makes formation of a line very 
difficult, thus exposing the German armor to 
passible encirclement. Since the Axis Army can't 
really afford any losses, it should avoid battles at 
less than S-l except where necessary, as at 

AXIS ATTACK: To define the German 
problem is very simple: drive the British into 
Tobruch and take it or Alexandria by November. 
Failure to do so will probably result in an Allied 
break-out since the Germans will be hard-pressed 
to defend both areas. As the Germans you have 
neither the men nor the supplies to stop and slug 
it out with the British for every position, so you 
must take each line by out-maneuvering the 
Allies, giving him an option of withdrawing or 
becoming surrounded. A position taken without a 
fight should he considered a greater victory than 
a D Elim at 3-1 against the same place. The 
following April 1 move is subjected to analysis 
and suggested with the above in mind: 

Trenta - W3 The garrisoning of the homebase 
is necessary if you want to receive supplies and 

21/3 - NI9 This unit prevents the British 
from blocking the 019 pass and is ready to move 
either north or south with the rest of the 

21/5 - N17 and 21/104 - N16 These are in 
position either to strike at the escarpment line or 
to move to the southern escarpment. They also 
protect: Supply - 017. 

Rommel - Ol 5 From here Rommel can easily 
reach any friendly unit. 

Ariete — H3 This unit isolates Bengasi. (It can 
reach this point by moving from W9 to S9), 


Some people move this unit to the South with 
the 21st Division, saying that a northern advance 
by this unit is a sheer waste. It is my opinion 
that this unit's relatively poor mobility handicaps 
it in the desert, while the capture of Bengazi and 
the destruction of 2/2sg is rather important. 

Pavia, Savena, Brescia - K5 These units are in 
position for a rapid advance along Ihe road 
Savena can assist in 2/2sg isolation next turn. 

Bologna - K3 This unit completes the isola- 
lion of Bengazi, 

You may notice that the placement of the 
Italians around Bengazi differs slightly from con- 
vention. It is designed lo discourage those irritat- 
ing 1-5 attacks by 2/2sg from G2 which, if 
successful, tie down three Italian units Tor two 
extra turns. If it attacks and gets an AB2, retreat 
him back through Bengasi to 12. Next move 
Bologna holds and Savena goes to H3. It's now 
surrounded by Iwo units instead of 3 and has no 
hope of escape. 

April 11 — This move depends somewhat on 
the British turn. If 2/2sg is dead, Savena and 
Bologna can join the rest of the Italians in 
advancing down the road as far as possible, If the 
21st division can join Ariete in a 4-1 attack, the 
other Italians will prevent isolation and the 
escarpment line could fall a turn early. A safer 
move which is just as good is to send the armor 
to a southern escarpment square such as P22 or 
T26, while 21/3 moves to U29, Rommel can 
either go with the 21st Division or wait a turn to 
assist the 15th. Some people will argue that this 
move leaves the center open for the Allies to 
send a unit to menace your supply iines. It is my 
contention that the British will need every ractor 
they have for defense. At least four factors must 
be positioned between M2I and P28 to stop the 
Cerman armor. More units must be placed further 
to the East to contain the recce unit. Any spare 
1-1-6's canT go anywhere anyway. The Italians 
block the coast road. If the British want to send 
out a unit, they will have to use a 2-2-6. Not too 
many Allied commanders are going to do that at 
this point. 

May 1 - The 15th Division should head for 
Mediili to join the Italians, who this turn move 
to block the central desert against British raids. 
The armor should continue eastward; R29 is i 
good square. The recce unit should also move 
east as far as possible. If the British aren't paying 
attention, it can take Alexandria on June I. 

May 1 1-Junc 1 - The May I move should have 
forced the British back to the Tobruch heights. It 
will probably take you a turn to clean up several 
delaying units; then you must drive the enemy 
off the heights and inlo the fortress. If you can 
get a good shot at 2/3, take it. Otherwise pick 
the weakest square and smash it. An advance 
after combat should force the defenders to 
retreat into Tobruch. If the British defense gives 
you strong units on the "I" row, look closely. 
You can probably hit a flank and advance, 
cutting off part of the Tobruch defense. 

If any British units managed to get behind 
your lines, they did it by going to the south. It 
will take them several turns to get in a menacing 
position. You shouldn't have to worry about 
them until you have occupied the Tobruch 
Heights. You can kill them now by forming a line 
the width of the board for two turns. 

During the first few jnonlhs keep alert for the 
possibility of sneaking into Tobruch. Supposedly 
competent players will quite often leave an 
opening. If you have a chance for a 2-1 or l-l 



against only 2 or 3 factors, take it, especially in 
PBM where the results are more favorable to the 
attacker. Such an attack isn't as costly as a three 
month siege against British armor and could win 
the fortress without a loss. 

Assuming your opponent hasn'l made any 
mistakes, the situation could be this: The British 
armor, entrenched in Tobruch, is contained by 
the Italians. You've just eliminated the British 
units behind your lines by isolation, you've got 
some supplies and you're ready to move. The 
question is: where? The answer depends on 
Britisli losses. If they have all three armored units 
in Tobruch and a couple 2-2-6's available for 
reinforcements, losses would be too great in an 
atlemp! lo take the fortress. For one thing, two 
Italians or an armored unit would be needed to 
soak-off for a 3-1. Attacks at less than 3-1 against 
a large garrison should be reserved for moments 
of desperation. Under these circumstances head 
lor Alexandria, leaving Italians on H24 and H26 
to keep the touchy Tobruch garrison where it 
belongs. Supplies shouldn't be too much of a 
problem at this point since you've only made two 
or three attacks. They will become a problem, 
however, so still avoid combat whenever possible. 
When you do attack, space lite attack a couple of 
turn ap;irl so you give yourself a chance to get 
the supply back and move it hack towards the 
action. Keep units on the east-west escarpment to 
threaten both sides, Recce units in the desert can 
threaten to cut off the Allies, especially if 
supported by armor. Automatic victory is our 
most potent weapon. Using it you may be able to 
break through a weak spot and isolate (he enlire 
Allied Army. Try not to lei the British slip 
behind your lines. If some do, you will have to 
form a line across the board to isolate them. A 
good Britisli commander will be able to keep a 
force intact and form a line anchored on 
Ruweisat or Alam Haifa that you can't outflank. 
Providing you have the supplies, and you should 
have, a couple of attacks on the massed l-l-6's 
should complete the disintegration of the enemy 
and you can walk into Alexandria. You then have 
plenty of time to take Tobruch. The British will 
run out of men long before you do, unless you 
roll nothing but 2's. 

If, in July, the Allies have lost 2/3 and a 
couple of 2-2-6's you probably want to go after 
Tobruk Hit the strongest unit at least 3-1 and 
soak-off with an Italian. Make sure there arc 
enough Italians in the 3-1 so you can lose them 
in an exchange. You don't have so many units 
that you can afford to lose an extra one through 
carelessness. Also, make sure that British forces in 
Egypt can't sneak through and capture a supply 
or isolate your army. After three or four attacks 
the British will have only l-l-6's in Tobruch. If 
you have IS factors left, you're in. If you have 
less than I 8 left, suggest a game of Bismarck. The 
turn you're sure to capture Tobruch, move your 
homebase garrison. If you then think you're 
strong enough to take Alexandria, charge! In the 
far more likely event that your army has been 
shattered by the siege, relax, build up supplies 
and reinforcements, attack just often enough to 
keep the enemy off balance, and, along about 
February, head for Alexandria. At this point even 
Mussolini would have a tough time losing. 

In their hints on strategy Avalon Hill mentions 
something aboul a garrison ill (iengayi. This idea 
is ridiculous! A unit wasted there will be dearly 
missed at the scene of action. 

To summarize, while the threat oT isolation is 
not as strong as it once was, it still exists. Avoid 
battles whenever possible, especially at less than 
5-1. Either Tobruch or Tripoli must fall by 
November. Pick one and stay with it. 

ALLIED FORCES: Like the Germans in 
D-Day, the Allies have a lot or pieces but few of 
them are worth much. The 111 2's ere useful in 
disrupting Axis supply lines since they are (he 
only ones that can match the German speed, but 
two of them can't pose a real threat. The few 
strong units on the board the first summer 
usually sit in Tobruch, leaving 1-1-6's and maybe 
a few 2-2-6's to contain the Germans. About all 
they can do is try to delay the Germans and 
disrupt their supply lines. Thuugh an expensive 
tactic, a double row of l-l-o's will stop the 
strongest German drives, since the back row can't 
be attacked in strength, The British can't mass 
enough factors for an attack until they receive 
their November reinforcements. Evt'n (hen they 
should try to conserve every piece since they 
have a long wait for their next reinforcements. 
Not until he is permitted to use the substitute 
counters late in the game can the Allied com- 
mander even dream of winning a pitched battle 
with the Germans. 

BRITISH DEFENSE: If through some miracle 
the Allies can hold on to Alexandria and Tobruch 
until November, they have practically won the 
game. The November reinforcements will, at the 
very least, halt the Axis advance and should be 
able to retake some territory. Anyhow, they 
should enable the Allies to hold their ground 
until March when the 3 to 1 replacement ratio 
will wear the Axis into the ground. IT the 
Germans do capture one of the objectives, the 
situation is not hopeless, but it is tougher, 
especially with the new rule interpretations. Still. 
while isolating a unit probably won't kill it, the 
Germans must waste supplies and time to free it. 
Also, they can't use captured supply units to 
sustain an automatic victory if there arc no 
supply units to capture. Keep all supplies in 
Tobruch and Alexandria. If they sneak into one 
of those places, the game is over anyway. You 
must make him fight for every gain. 

April 1 - Move all 1-1-6's out to sea. Don't 
leave one at Alexandria. If it is threatened you 
can move a force back in plenly of lime. Bring in 
a supply at Tobruch and send it east. It will 
garrison the Homebase in May. Many line-ups, 
differing only slightly, have been suggested for 
the escarpment. Mine is: 22 Gds. - 
G! 8,2/3 -HI7, 9A/20-K58, 7/31Mtr. -L19. Many 
people attack out with 2/2sg. Often, I prefer not 
to, since if the attack is unsuccessful, 12 Italian 
factors will face the escarpment line un May 1 
instead of fi. That could be the difference 
between a 5-1 and a 4-i on a 1-1-6 on the 
escarpment. If successful the attack will delay 
two Italian units for an extra turn, but they 
aren't badly needed on May I I anyway. The 
threat of the 15th Division is enough to force a 
withdrawal from the escarpment, 

April 11 Ihe 1-1-6's should be deployed lo 
the south to hlnck any Germans on the southern 
escarpments. The western escarpment lines should 
be held another turn. If the 21st Division is out 
of range and only 8 Italian factors are in the 
area, you can replace the 2-2-6's with lT-6's, The 
2-2-6's are then freed Tor oilier duties. IT you're 
feeling adventuresome you can even send one 
west. However, it would be better to send a 

May 1 Slaying in the same defenses another 
turn would he disastrous. In the west the 15th 
Div. and the Italians could get an automatic 
victory on the escarpment line and cut off most 
of the army from Tobruch. In the south., where 
the 21st Division has stretched the lines very 
thin, and automatic victory might be possible 
also. The time has therefore come to withdraw to 
the heights around Tobruch, Of course, 1-1-6' 
should be left in the western passes to make the 
Italians wasle lime and supplies to eliminate 
them. Units should also be sent to protect the 
J34 pass. A careful watch definitely should be 
kept on the 21st Division. If it is near Ihe 
Egyptian border, send some units out to sea to 
protect homebase. 

When Ihe retreat is made into Tobruch itself, 
leave a 1-1-6 outside, if possible, lo force the 
Germans to waste another supply before getting a 
clean shot at the Tobruch defenders. If the 
Germans attack Tobruch, keep it reinforced by 
sea Wilh the rest of your army, move west from 
Alexandria and threaten to surround the attack- 
ing force. Send a unit smith to keep pressure on 
the supply lines. 

Sooner or laler Ihe drive on Alexandria will 
start. When it does, fall hack us slowly as possible 
without being surrounded. As you retreat, leave 
small units behind. The Germans will have to 
waste either supplies or time and men to kill 
them. When you can afford to counter-attack, 
don't. Your extra troops will cause the Germans 
more headaches when added to doubled defense 
lines or sent westward to raid his supplies. An 
attack my kill an Axis unit but the exposed 
attackers will be smashed by a powerful German 
counter-attack. Only when the position is des- 
perate should you consider the possibility of 
attacking, unless of course, the German is with- 
out supply. If you can't safely get a 3-1. a 1-2 is 
the best type of allack. I'm speaking of a 
situation wherein a strong German force is driving 
On a smaller Allied force. Of course, if you 
outnumber the Axis and can launch a sustained 
offensive, go ahead. 

When those impressive November reinforce- 
ments arrive, don'l get excited and start attacking 
everything in sight. Those reinforcements are all 
you get, except for a few (roups in May, for IS 
turns. This 'force has to hold off a reinforced 
German Army until August. 

If Tobruch is guarded against counterattacks 
by two Italians while the rest of the Germans 
move east, try to 'move some men out of the fort 
for a 1-3 on the Italians so you have to retreat 
outside the fort. If you can shake some men 
loose this far behind the Axis lines, Ihe Germans 
may have to retreat from Egypt. If a 1-3 isn't 
possible, try a 1-2 to push the Italians back. 

In conclusion, Afrika Korps is a game of 
maneuver, more so than any other Avalon Hill 
game. Because of the small armies and unusual 
supply rules, one misplaced unit can snatch 
defeat from the jaws of victory. 

I would like to hear from anyone who disa- 
grees with my opinions which I've advanced in 
this article. If 1 don't hear from anyone, I'll 
assume that everyone thinks my strategy is 
perfect. (That should get some letters.) 

Tom Hazlett 
6 Echo Point 
Wheeling, W. Va. 26003. 



Airborne Panzerblitz 

list Lt. Shelby U Stanton, USA 

This article is included for those who would like 
to experiment with air assault (parachuting and 
air landing) in Panzerblitz, but who cannot find 
any practical justification in real history for it. 
While it is relatively well known that the elite 
German Air Force Parachute-Armored Division 
"Hermann Goring" was trim starred to the 
Ostfront in mid-1944, it is also common knowl- 
edge that this unit was "airborne" in name only. 
The lack of any historical documentation would 
make any late-war air assault seem not only 
unrealistic but totally absurd. 

Being a paratrooper myself and determined to 
"jump" into Situation 13, 1 began researching the 
famed "Hermann Goring" Division for visible 
evidence to back up my plans. An almost 
unknown source suddenly made (he whole enter- 
prise not merely feasible but very practical as 
well. The Department of Army Historical Division 
MS No. B-628, An Airborne Panier Corps, by 
Gen. Lt. Schmalz (unclassified Jan. 1954) was 
uncovered at Fort Benning, In this brief study 
General Schmalz explained that the Fallschinn- 
Panzer Division "Hermann GiJring" was in fact 
planned as a force capable of conducting an air 
assault. Accordingly its members were to be 
trained as parachutists and the division's heavy 
equipment (tanks, artillery, etc.) prepared for 

transport in "large planes." Fot a number of 
reasons this project was dissolved, not the least 
being the fact that inadequate gasoline supplies 
were available for the required training. 

However, though the manuscript is very general 
and perhaps too optimistic. General Schmalz did 
include two vila! pieces of in forma lion; a landing 
schedule and proposed organization chart. Unfor- 
tunately the chart was very simplified, but con- 
sulfation with that priceless reference, TM-E 
30-451, Handbook on German Military Forces, 
provided a fairly detailed analysis of what might 
have been. 

My organization chart has been listed in 
"counter format" so one can readily assemble it 
with his Panzerblitz pieces (though the Nehel- 
werfer counters would have to be composed as 
they are not available in the game). 

For those interested in the basis for my chart I 
must admit making modifications to General 
Schmalz' plan, but 1 confined these to reasonable 
interpretations of his organizational views. He 
desired an airborne division composed of six 
regiments; three airborne rifle, one flak, one 
artillery (to be comprised entirely of rocket 
projectors), and one armored. My chart clearly 
shows the rifle regimental organizations of three 
rifle and one Panzer-grenadier battalions each. 

The Panzer regiment, according to General 
Schmalz, would have been composed of four 
"Panther" tank battalions. 1 tempered this 
scheme with one reflecting (in my opinion) a 
more probable organization as of late 1944; that 
is, consisting of two "Panther" battalions, one 
'Tiger l" battalion, and one "Tiger II" battalion. 
Since General Schmalz specifically stated that the 
parachute artillery regiment would be completely 
replaced with rocket projectors, I copied a rocket 
projector regiment right out of TM-E 30-45 1 . All 
battalion organizations and so forth were derived 
from this source as well and reflect accurately 
German TOE calculations. 

Now lhat I have explained the organization of 
such a division let us study its proposed air 
assault procedure. According to General Schmalz, 
the first wave was the only actual one to 
parachute in, as the following five waves would 
be airlanded. The first wave would include all 
airborne qualified personnel and equipment. 
Turning to my organization chart allow all rifle, 
submachinegun, mortar, and engineer units an 
airborne capability. The Division and Rifle regi- 
ment CPs may also jump. However, no members 
of the Engineer Battalion or the Panzer-Grenadier 
battalions should take part in the first (para- 
chute) wave. 


Division headquarters 




Reconnaissance Co. 





Enfiinoer Bn 



Anti-rank Bn 






Mortar En 



Para Panzer Rgt 









Pa™ Rocket Projector Rgt 








Para AA Kgt 







Para Rifle Rgt (3 per Div) 








Para Rifle Bn (3 per R Rgt) 






Pana FzOR Bn (l per R Rgt) 













i 1 


























































































The Second Wave (airlanded) would then in- 
clude the Panzer-Grenadier battalions of the rifle 
regiments, organic transport to those who landed 
as needed, and the remainder of Division Head- 
quarters itself. 

The Third Wave (airlanded) includes tile Panzer 
Regiment. The Fourth Wave (airlanded") is com- 
prised of the Anti-aircraft regiment, while the 
Fifth Wave (airlanded) is composed of the Rocket 
Projector regime n I. 

Finally, the last and Sixth Wave (airlanded) 
contains anyone not already brought in to in- 
clude the Engineer battalion, etc. 

Though you would have to fictiousty alter the 
course of the war to play out the hypothetical 
situation this seheme would demand, it could 
have happened! It is late l'J44, the Luftwaffe' 
jets have conquered the skies over the Ost front, 
and the "Hermann Goring," for months building 
up and training in reserve, is now airlifted on an 
air assault mission against the Russian forces. 
PanzeTblitz Situation No. 13 (Airborne) is about 
to begin! 

1st Li Shelby L. Stanton, USA 

200 N. Dougherty Ave. 

Ft. Bragg, North Carolina 28307 


Stalingrad Breakthrough 

by Lawrence R. Valencourt 

Have you ever tried to play Stalingrad using 
the Blitzkrieg or Guadalcanal attrition tables 
instead of the usual combat results table? By 
using this type combat results table the German 
armor is able to exploit its breakthroughs after a 
battle. This type of CR use :ilsi> plitces it greater 
burden on the Russian defenses, in this game the 
Russian needs a defense in depth - tough to do 
with only 34 corps. However, careful play by 
both players gives a more realistic game. You can 
use a PBM sheet lo keep track of your losses. 
Russian replacements can still be accumulated but 
to be restored to strength the weak unit must 
return to the supply city. Also Russian units can 
reach a point where they have no attack capa- 
bility but slill have defense factors remaining. As 
in the normal game defense factors are what are 
counted as replacements. 

For the German a new method of attack must 
be used. At least three coordinated attacks are 
necessary to insure a penetration. Two attacks by 
infantry and armor on either side of a weaker 
unif being attacked at say 5+-1 will permit the 
armor hi the center attack to advance deeper 
after the battle the flanking attacks would 
hopefully eliminate the enemy zones of control 
from the immediate battlefield. See illustration. 

1 feel this method of combat results is more 
realistic because at first the Germans make deep 
penetrations but the Russian replacement rate 
still plays a major role in the outcome. Who has 
ever reached the outskirts of Moscow by Decem- 
ber, 1941 except against a remarkahly inferior 
Russian commander; the real Germans did. 

Give this system a try and see how it changes 
the initial battle but not necessarily the war. 

Figure 1. 

New attack 
against old 

A - 

3 to 7 

I to 3 

B - 

18 to 6 

3 to 1 

C - 

1 6 to 3 

5 to 1 

D - 

18 to 6 

3 to 1 


4 to 14 

1 to 3 

. . . likes to Spot 88*s with Half-tracks?" 

roll results: 
A 3 A 1 , back 2 
B 3 O- 1 , back 2 A + 1 
roll last: 
D 2 A-l, D-l (Bad 

E 5 A-2, back 2 
Now roll Battle C: 
C 6 A-4, hack 4 A + 3 

Had battle D gone favorably we 
could have advanced to Squares X, 

Thus you see, there are all kinds of advances 
possible for the German. 


PAGE 10 

by Richard Shalvoy 

Dobs it always seem that your opponent in any 
game you play has personally bought control of 
the New York Stock Exchange'? Why is it that 
you can never roll a one and your Iriend on the 
other side of the board can never shoot a two, 
especially when the battle is 3- 1 douhled? We are 
all victims of bad luck at one time or another. I 
have developed a primitive system that will allow 
you to figure out how lucky you've been and 
which will suggest remedies for your luck (if your 
opponent will agree). Maybe just once, you'll be 
able to tell your friend who has taken to 
bemoaning his luck every time he loses to you 
that in reality, you had the worse luck. 

The Combat Results Table has bEen so 

thoroughly analyzed that I will simply extract 

probabilities of certain results occurring from it. 

For example, at 6-1 odds, &0% of the time, you 




5 1 

Now we subtract the actual game results from 
the weighted average results. As a crude way of 
comparing results of tuck, 1 assign factors CO the 
results of the battles. Let an A-elim at 1-2 or 
worse be equivalent to 4 factors; let a German 
exchange take 10 factors and a Russian exchange 
7; a Russian D-ehm takes 7 factors. Admittedly, 
this system ignores the difference between AB-2 
and DB-2 at various odds, but this is a crude 
approximation to reality only. Perhaps a point 
system could include some of the more subtle 

Actual Game 




















should get a D-elim and the remaining 209 gives 
you a DB-2. I'll write this as 8-2, The order of 
preference for bailies is arbitrary to me hut I'll 
take and order uf D-elim, DB-2, Exchange, AB-2, 
V* A-elim, and A-elim. I'll list the theoretical 
results in this order. 2-1 for example is 3 D-elims, 
1 DB-2, 3 Exchanges, I AB-2, V/i A-ellm and 1 
A-elim; this is listed as: 3-1-3-1-1-1. 

Now this set-up is all well and good if yuu 
have fought ten battles at each odds, hul since 
this rarely happens, we must weight the theo- 
retical (average) results for the number of battles 
that are to be compared with it. If we have seven 
battles at a certain odds, we multiply the average 
results by 7/10 to allow for direct comparisons. 
The genera! case is to multiply the average results 
by N/10 when you have fought N battles at that 
particular odds. Doing so, 1 can draw up the 
following table for a game of Stalingrad, now in 
its sixth turn. 

Average Results Weighted Average 

2-8 0.4-1.6 











differences, but I'll leave that to other articles. At 
1-6 we see that the German has lost 0.4 more 
A-elims than if he had had average luck, so we 
credit the Wehrmacht with 4 times 0.4 = 1.6 
factors. At 3-1 we see that the German should 
have had 0.4 more D-elims (2.8 more Russian 
factors off the board), and the German should 
have had 1.2 fewer exchanges thus returning 12 
German factors and 8.4 Russian factors. Putting 
all these results in table form gives: 



(Actual Weighted) 

-0 4-0.4 
4.1 (4.1) 

3-1 -.4-(-.8)-1.2 

4-1 2-C-.4H-1-6) 

5-1 No change 

6-1 .4-I-.4) 


German factors 

Return 1.6 
Remove 2.0 
Return IG.4 

No change 

Return 12.0 

Remove 16 
No change 
No change 

Return 12.0 

Russian factors 

Remove 1.2 

Relurn 5.6 
Return 3.8 

No change 
Return 2.8 

Return 11.0 

average should he 74-1 2 = 62. For the Russian we 
have: 112-11=101. The partial loss factor for 

the Germans is given by the actual losses divided 
by the average losses = 74/62 = 1,19. For the 

Russians, this partial loss factor 
is= 15 2/101 = 1.11. To get the LUCK FACTOR 

(finally), we divide the German partial luck factor 
by the Russian partial luck factor. This results in 
the Luck Fachit = 1 . 1 9/ 1 . 1 1 = /. o 7 

Now whal does all of this good stuff mean 
anyway, I can hear you ask. Very simply this, if 
either side's losses have been exactly as they 
should have, given average luck, then the partial 
toss factor for that side should be 1.00. The 
smaller the PLF, the better your luck has been. If 
each side has had equally bad (or good) luck, 
Ihen the luck factor should be 1.00. By putting 
your partial luck factor on top in the division for 
the luck factor, we find that again, the smaller 

the luck coefficient, the better your luck has 
been. From this discussion, you can see that my 
luck has (typically) been not the best, but still 
reasonably close to average, so 1 really don't have 
too many grounds for griping. 

Now that we can actually see how lucky we've 
been, what good does all this do us (besides being 
able to impress your opponent the next time he 
complains about his misfortunes in battle)? One 
possibility would be to return the factors in 
imbalance as we figured out earlier as replace- 
ments at certain time intervals. This would not 
negate the territorial gains taken through skilled 
generalship or good fortune, but it would serve to 
minimize the whimsical effects of Lady Fortune 
I still feel that the main advantage of figuring out 
the Luck Factor is just the sake oT knowing how 
well Dame Fortune has bestowed her gifts on 
you. I realize that the use of factors in figuring 
out a Luck Factor is not the best of all systems 
and a different method has to be used for a game 
like Bulge. Anyone having suggestions for good oi 
had is welcome to write me at: 

15 Ludlow Manor 

East Norwalk, Conn. 06855 



Strategy - 


by Louis J. Jerkich 

When making strategic or tactical plans, one 
must ask as the French General Foch did: "Whal 
is the essence of the problem?" In 1914 the 
problem which both players face is how to obtain 
as many victory points as possible, thus winning 
both the campaign and the war. The Allies have 
an initial 66 points and tile Germans have 30. 
How can the Allies prevent the Germans from 
gaining points and how can they gain some for 

The key to this problem lies in retaining 
valuable terrain and acquiring the only two 
German-held squares of any point value - Metz 
and Strassburg. Although the Allies obtain 40 
points tor taking Mel/., since the Germans in turn 
lose 20, the Teal value of Metz to the French is 
60 points. Likewise, the real value of Strassburg 
is 30 points. The conclusion is obvious: Metz and 
Strassburg are very much worth the effort to take 

The Allied strategy, therefore, should not only 
provide for defensive coiiiilermeasures to the 
German plan, but should also provide for a strong 
offensive on the French part. Both of these 
considerations must be reflected in the initial 
deployment on the mobilization chart. 

The following initial deployment, which I call 
French Plan Vl-L, provides the basis for the 
French strategy. 


(Deployment squares are indicated by either 
grid coordinates, mobilization squares (MS), or 
the name of a city.) 

Deployment Square 


Verdun, Tou 

1, Lpinal, 


6-9-3 in each 


6-9-3. (2)- 1-4 




6-9-3, 2-4-3, (2)-M, 6-0-2 

MS- 10 


MS-1 2 


MS- 13 

6-9-3, (2M-4 

MS-1 5 

6-9-3, (2)- 1-4 


6-10-3, 2-4-3 




6-10-3, 6-0-2 












6-10-3, (2)-I-4 

All twelve 

(12) of 

the mobi 


squares from MS-22 

One 6-10-3 on each 

to MS-33 



Renault FT-17 


(2)- 1 -4 

(2)-]-4, 6-10-3 
( 2)- M, 6-0-2 

At first glance this plan may bring back echoes 
of Hie French Plan 17. Most of the French forces 
are again amassed on the German border while 
the Belgium frontier seems relatively unprotected. 
However, the execution of Plan Vl-L does not 
disregard the German strategy as Plan 17 did. 1 
will now proceed lo show how Ihe French 
offensive should be conducted and whal the 
benefits of Plan Vl-L are in relation to the 
various German strategies. 

In conducting the offensive, the French player 
must try to gain ground at the fastest rale 
possible. The forst of Metz should be attacked 
immediately on turn one and Ihe ridge south of 
Mel* should be secured or regained (if the 
Germans have taken it on their first turn). French 
forces should push into the clear terrain east of 
Metz and also try to destroy the fort on 11-26 
and the forts of HH-24. At the same time, 
another force should advance up the valley to 
Strassburg while other units converge on it from 
the south. If the Germans can be forced to give 
tip the rough terrain between Metz and Strass- 
burg. by all means take it. 

Using Plan 17 against the Schlieffen 1906 plan 
I have managed to get the French to UU-25 in 
thirteen turns. Metz was captured and the Ger- 
man right wing got no further than Ghent, The 
French barely missed cutting off the German 
supplies and the Germans obtained a Marginal 
Victory. My Plan VI-L, however, makes up for 
the deficiency of Plan 17 when used against the 
Schlieffen or similar plans with a strong right 
wing. As long as the EB units and Supply 
Limitations aren't being used the strong French 
right wing can sweep inlo Germany and reach 
Mainz in less than thirteen turns, attempting to 
cul the German supply line. Having besieged 
Strassburg, as many French units as possible 
should blitz to Mainz via the Rhine Valley. 

German forces between the Rhine and Moselle 
will be forced to pull back to prevent being 
outflanked. The German player will also be 
forced to draw from his right wing in an effort to 
halt the French. 

While the French drive for the Rhine, their left 
wing must halt the German advance. All French 
forces from Lille to MS-16 are used for this 
purpose. These can be reinforced by the 6-9-3's 
in Verdun, Toul, and Epinal. The French left 
wing can form a barrier stretching from Antwerp 
through Brussels and Charleroi to Givet, and then 
along the southern rough terrain squares to 
Longwy in two turns. Later, the line can be 
strengthened by the arrival of the BEF and a few 
"A" Corps from the right if absolutely necessary. 

For the Germans to halt the French right, they 
will probably need to take enough units away 
from the Belgian front that they will be sus- 
ceptible lo a French counteroffensive there. If 
the French reach the Meuse, their front will be 
shorter and more defensible. A decisive victory 
will be within their grasp. 

Supposing that the Germans build up behind 
the Meusc before marching into Belgium, the 
French will have about six turns in which to 
prepare a defense. Al the same time they should 
drive as deep into Germany as possible. The same 
holds true if the Germans march through Holland 

Any German "inverted Schlieffen" Plan is, of 
course, doomed from the start by an impassable 
wall of troops - a ready-made defense Tor the 

In the event that the Germans are strong 
enough to hold the French off in Ihe south but 
yet strong enough to attempt an advance through 
Belgium in the north, the French will be forced 
to play defensively. This will most likely result in 
a stalemate which will be won by the person 
using belter tactics but that's a subject for 
another article. 

Louis J. Jerkich 
418 E. 274th Street 
Euclid, Ohio 44132 


PAGE 12 

The Organized Wargamer 

by R. C. Reed Staff 

The response to the last installment of the 
Organized Wargamer was so bountiful that we 
had to skip an issue to get the information 
organized in some sort of coherent order. I had 
asked for suggestions for sorting and separating 
unit counters in the previous column and pre- 
sented here are some of the best and most 
representative suggestions. 

Robert Freisseis, an IFW member from Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin writes: "You can use egg cartons: 
this is a good way to keep home-made games or 
varients separate, but it is not the best idea for 
games which you move around all the time. 
Another, the best I think, is to use stamp 
holders, available in most stationary and hobby 
stores, these heavy paper-like compartmented 
sheets are excellent for holding units. You can 
write unit ID's on the stamp holders or Xerox 
the counters and paste their pictures below the 
counters, 1 find this especially good for the 
Panzerblitz game. It takes only four sheets for a 
complete set of Pamerblliz counters, but this is 
also good for any game with a large number of 
pieces such as 1914 or Anzio. This is also good 
Tor games with step reduction to keep track of 
the various steps ..." 

J. P. Hope of Arlington, Virginia says that "I 
have found that 'Diamond Safety Matches' make 
excellent counter containers. The plastic tray in 
PanzerblUi will hold thirty-two of these boxes 
and game set-up is much quicker using labelled 
boxes. The entire game can he slored in its 
original container without additional space re- 
quired for tackle boxes, ice cube trays, etc. These 
boxes come in packages of eight each and sell for 
1 1 cents per package. One problem 1 have found 
in converting eleven games, being a non-smoker 
and having an electric stove, is that there is a 
great surplus of matches in my apartment ..." 

A simple solution, offered by W. K. Moro of 
Sparwood, British Columbia, is to "organize 
counters by affixing a piece of hard cardboard to 
the back of the troop counter card and making a 
tape hinge to another hard cardboard sheet for 
the front; one can keep the counters in their 
position as per the new games simply by using a 
paper clip on the open end." 

Another resident of British Columbia, Graham 
F, Lucknott from Victoria writes of his gaming 
group: "We have developed a system (sample 
enclosed): place photograph comer mounts on 
sheets of paper or cardboard in any Order of 
Battle. These corner mounts provide neat pockets 
which hold the units in place under most condi- 
tions. Each corner can be marked to indicate 
which unit it is for." This seems to be one of the 
quickest and simplest methods reported. 

Finally, we reproduce in its entirety an article 
from Bill Freeman of Concord, Mass. Bill has 
presented a 'how-to-do-it 1 thesis for those reader's 
who require a method presented in specific 

*' Figures A, Aj, A2, C & D show a compact 
method of organizing countersheets for immedi- 
ate set-up, use during the game, and storage. It 
has the distinct advantage of being adaptable to 
any Avalon Hill game. II does not require a 
myriad of tiny boxes, bags or other home grown 
bulk. Il does have two disadvantages: it requires 
the use of the counter frame that the unit 
counters came in, and the holding straps for the 
kit must be periodically replaced every several 
years. Of course, it requires in construction one 
element that is saved later on: time. 

Figure A | shows counter frame with counters 
removed. A2 shows a piece of cut posterboard 
pencil outlined to aid in the application or rubber 
cememt, which is applied to the back of A] and 
to the top of Ai. Pressed together, excess cement 
should be removed with a rubber "magnet" 
(easily made by forming a ball of excess, dry 
rubber cement). Figure B: counter sheets of a 
similar size (as in Panzertilitz) may be stacked 
after being set-up in figure A- For unequal sheets 
of similar size, the larger sheets go to the bottom. 
In special cases separate kits can or may have to 
be made to accomodate dissimilar counter sheets. 



Scotch "Green Plaid" tape, not enough "stick") 
should be placed at the sides away from the 
hinged side. This tape, six shown in C, provides a 
slick surface for the tape holding straps and 
prevents the straps from picking-up the under- 
neath posteiboard during periodica) application 
and removal of the tape. 


/ / / ^ 

Figure D: the complete "kit." The darkened 
areas of the tapes extending are "sticky" and the 
white ends are where the tape has been folded 
over to form a "tab" for easy grip. These holding 
straps as well as the binding are removed during 
the game, leaving only the postcrboard-backed 
counter sheets. Of course, the arrangement of 
units wrthin the counter frames should follow 
either a "play" or "PBM" set-up, depending on 
how the counters are to be used. 

Figure C: two additional posterboard sheets are 
cut to the dimensions of the "bottom" counter 
sheet. These form the "binding" for the counter 
sheets. Plastic or plastic-cloth tape (don't use 

That should give you an overall view of what 
gamers are doing to diminish an annoying prob- 
lem associated with the hobby. 

The next question I would like to ask the 
readership is what tricks do yau have for facili- 
tating the actual progress of play in games like 
Anzio, 1914, and those other games where 
constant referral to the rule book is necessary to 
keep track of ranges, distances to objectives etc. 
This problem is especially acute in Anzio, and. 
Lufmaffe, and to a lesser extent, Panzerblitz and 
Guadalcanal. This is a wide open question. As an 
extra added incentive, the subscriber who sends 
in the best trick or idea on the question will be 
awarded a $5.00 gift certificate. Other good ideas 
will be included in the next OWG column. Send 
in your comments: communicate! 

Dear Sirs, 

Mr, Augenbraun has written many fine articles, 
(German Defense of Normandy, etc.) hut hig 
latest VWU1M — "Gettysburg, What Price Vic- 
tory?" is conspicuously absent from that list. He 
is correct in pointing out that the present victory 
conditions are grossly inaccurate, unbalanced, and 
unrealistic. Hi* solution, however, (5 lirrle bener 

His Bifsmple of n ridiculous Union victory 
where all but one meager battalion of Northern 
artillery are destroyed by the South does show 
the absurdity of the existing condition*, under his 
system, however, the Union player could dispose 
of the entire Army of Northern Virginia encept 
□ne Southern artillery hartal ion and the game 
would be declared a draw, even if the army of 
the Potomac had suffered no losses! Obviously, 
nelrher system is acceptable or realistic. 

More accurate, we feel, would be a point 
system, much as used In many of the Panjerblitz 
situations, with a value being assigned to each 
unit, Qf course, the Confederates will have to 
destroy more units than they themsstves lose, not 
only was the Southern army smaller, they were 
receiving only a trickle of supplies horn Virginia. 
Lee's army could not split up to flva off the 
countryside as long as a strong Union army 
remained in the field without inviting defeat in 

Under Mr. Augenbraun's ruies, the real Battle 
of Gettysburg would be considered a "draw/ 1 a 
nasty surprise for President Lincoln, who was 
under the misapprehension that it had been a 
Union victory, h is exceptionally rare for an 
army to be eliminated down to the lent battalion 
in any one battle, As a matter of fact, we venture 
to say that 9 out of 10 games played under Mr, 
Augenbreun's rules, would be draw*. After all, it 

would t* rather annoying to be told that after 

you had finished wiping out 96% of Lee's forces, 
and were preparing for a triumphal march on 
Richmond, that you had merely fought a "draw/' 

Hopefully, under a point system, badly 
needed degree of realism could be introduced 
into the game of Gettysburg, 50 that it can take 
its rightful place as a battle of wits. 
Thomas Wilbur & Peter Wilbur 
The Pentagon 
Washington, ac. 20301 

Dear Sirs, 

I'm compiling s list of brats, club feeders, and 
public spirited gamers who have volunteered to 
uithBr coordinate ftf matching In their areas or 
act as public relations representatives for their 
group ot gamers. 

These persons exchange ideas on promoting ftf 
play, collaborate on chartering busses to conven- 
tions, and help arrange tours of local clubs in 
which vacationing gamers spend each night in 
another gamer's home. 

The Operation Contact representative and their 
assistants compile lists of gamers In their area, 
with special interests {AH, Dippy, Miniatures, 
etcj and best times Lu call, then make this 
information available to newcomers 10 local gam 
ing vie hohhy shops and AH game boxes. 

r've else compiled a list of appro*. 250 
different war games, apace games, and other 
intellectual simulation games, how much they 
cost, and where to get them. The list will be sent 
free, so long as rny supply lasts, tn anyone 
sending me e self -ad dressed stamped envelope and 
specifying that they wani my game list. 

Public spirited gamers who have the time to 
promote Operation Contact in the manner 
described ebovc, please contact me. I'M send you 
the names and addresses of the other coordi- 
nators, and we'll each send you all the names of 
ftf gamers in your area that we know of. 
expecting of course, the same from you. 

Club and Zine official who are too busy with 
thoir own projects to participate in Operation 
Contact c*n still help out by inviting their 
membership lu sign up tor our regional ftf 
opponents telephone directories 
Aliater Wm, Maclntyre 
2729 Stratford Aw. 
Cincinnati, Oh, 45220 


Enclosed is the official club register for you I 
will give you some additional info for your Files, 

Th& American Designer's Association was 
formed some 8 months ago for the express 
purpose of siding the amateur designer in getting 
his games published, and to this end assembling 
Chose interested in designing to facilitate the 
exchange of ideas, criticism, and provide critical 
play-testing services. 

During those 3 months the ADA has gone 
through several Internal changes, and is now In 
the process of changing tor the last time. Deci- 
sions on policy have been to: Encourage older 
and mature gamers to jc-in, be bipartisan in 
relation to the older \:<.\ -.}■"■■ clubs, charge & 
subscription rate which includes membership, and 
finally to restrict the content of articles to 
basically design and design related material. 

The ADA ha* a club newsletter, Grundsreit , 
which costs $2.50 a year and a sub. includes 
membersrup for a year. Also tor the facility of 
tha members, there is a Diplomacy mag. which 
carries garros tor members, Mars Vigiia. The 
government is a dictatorship restrained by a 
plebiscite of tfie members, which Is a POLL 
which is found in issues of Grundsteit. The POLL 
asks the readership for decisions based on the 
information inside the mag, 

The ADA has facilities for offset publication of 
games, photocopying for play-test versions for the 
membership, and mimeograph for the magazines. 
Games now in the works are 38th Parallel, 
Confrontation If, Move Out!, the Battle of 
Moscow, and several others in lesser stages of 
development. Although we have not yet pub- 
lished any gam*:; we expect 10 publish one this 
fall (the best of the above, or possrbly Age of 

The ADA welcomes all mature wargflrners 
interested in designing. 
American Designer's Assoc, 
7fi Genesee Street 
Greene. New York 137 70 

Dear Sir: 

In regard to your change in the Opponents 
Wanted section: 

I have indeed noticed that the Opponents 
Wantad page is crowded. 

I have also noticed that your method of 
deeitng with the problem is extreme. Here are my 

\\ It will not save much space. The median 
length of the Hes) 20 ads in the May-June 
General is 29 words, including addresses and 
numbers, My own ad in that issue was 23 words. 

2) The Opponents Wanted ads are one of the 
moil Attractive features of The Qen&ai, and are a 
major reason you have many of your- subscribers. 
You should be careful about devaluing them. Yet + 
you are devaluing the ads. The form you have 
chosen will not just cut nut unnecessary rhetoric; 
it will also remove humor and individuality from 
the ads. That individuality is what makes the ads 

Let me appeal to your self-interest; You wilt 
do better if war-gaming as a whole does better, 
end you will do especially well if The GenwAJ is 
a or the major uflkhi uf communication among 

AH NOTE: Wh'fe your arguments for restoration 
of individually warded ads are well founded, you 
have slightly mis-interpreted the reason for the 
"f&rrn-ed. " in addition to saving space, which 
yon will note it does since we do not print the 
s/jperfufovs w&rds printed in the form, ft saves 
the evssififtt of our compositors. You wouldn't 
believe how unmieillgbfe many ads are upon 
Arrive/. And since most tvbscribers do not have 
access fp s typewrite, or cannot type, the 
handwritten ads (eft much to be desired. The 
current form seems to be the panacaa it tha 
moment . . , 

In the Avalon Hill Philosophy - Part 20, Paul 
Vercarnmen. editor and publisher of Air Combat 
magazine, states that, "it would have been 
impossible for England and France to do much 
about German interference in Poland." FianVly, I 
find this statement somewhat unbelievable, 
especially from Mr. Vercammen. 

It seems dear to me that offensive, aggressive 
action by the French army and Allied airtorces 
would have proved, if not tactically, strategically 
successful in upsetting the .Wehrmacht. One of 
the most important factors of warfare is to seiz« 
the initiative, something the allies could have, but 
obviously failed to do. Politically, the strongest 
warnings might hve delayed the Soviet baefc- 
rt&bbing of Poland, this is minor, however. 

Mr. Vercammen's reasoning seems to be either 
irrelevant or somewhat inaccurate. Let us con- 
sider his statements In relation to a French attack 
In mid-September, 1939. First, he tells of some' 
thing new. that Germany's Pander divisions were 
superior to the Allies. But what good are the 
Panzers in Poland d the French are in the 
Rhineland? He then states that the German 
■tupply lines were better. Once again, irrelevant. 
The French, however, would need only snort 
supply lines to capture the industrial Ruhr. And 
to state that "type for type" German tanks were 
superior to the allies is completely inaccurate. 
The basic German tank was the Pekpf II (15 mm 
armor, 20 mm cannon).. The French not only had 
more tanks, but they were belter {the Somua, 
S-35 55 mm armor, 47 mm gun and CbarB, 60 
mm arm., 47 mm gun and a 75 mm gun). 
Finally, daring raids on Berlin would have been 
strategically successful (no matter how small the 
true damage), fend strong attacks on the Ruhr 
would have averted needed Luftwaffe planes to 
the west, as would a ground attack. Bui, most 
importantly, the initiative would have been lost 
to Germany and its war would be a two-front 

I feel confident that little more than a Corps 
could have crashed ths West "Wall," since it was 
made of pure hlyff with a few untried troops to 
keep up the show, 
T, Hilton 
25? 74th Street 
Brooklyn, New York 

CHANC£LLOft£Vli_L£, in the opinion of this 
staff, was probably Avalon Hill's biggest mistake. 
While historically accurate; It was unbalanced, 
unplayable, and practically undecipheraf from a 
rules standpoint. Because the North sq out- 
numbered the South (by 7 to U yet still lost, the 
victoiy conditions were distorted beyond belief in 
order to give the South any hope ol victory in 
the game. Yet, many persona still seek rcpiei of 
riiii, yau-ie. Lutky you - we iust got m {from 3 
bankrupt dealer) unsaleable copies for re- 
furbishing. Out Of the melee we've been able to 
put together four games of CfuncellpfBviNe that 
are complete except for the 6ok rop So we are 
prepared to auction off these four copies (ust as 
we did thosu collectors items auctioned off in 
July-Aug 1971 issue. Minimum acceptable bid 
will be the $4,98 retail price of Chancellorsvillc. 
Only Four games are available. They will be sent 
En a bc-« other than the Chancellorsville lid; but 
all other parts will be from the original gsme 
except the CRT. The current CRT, interchange- 
able with that of the Slide-Rule CRT, will be 
substituted. To bid, simply send in a check and a 
slip of paper stating your bid. Tha four highvsl 
bids as of Ofitnbcr T5, 1971 will be shipped the 
qjiiiyt,. Only one game per customer. All low bids 
will be returned in Full, Address your bid to: 
Chance I lorsvtHe Auction, t/o The Avalon HLi I h 
Company, 4517 Harford Road h Baltimore, Md. 
21314. Mali before October 15, 1971. 

Contest No. 45 

In this month's contest you find yourself faced 
with a critical situation in Blitzkrieg. As Big 
Rad r S troubleshooting Army Group commander 
you have been sent to rectify a massy situation 
on one of the smaller fronts of the campaign. 
Your predecessor, after good initial gains, let 
himself be counterattacked to create the situation 
illustrated In the diagram. Your job, should you 
decide to accept thr) mission, is to rectify it-. 
Your objective is to create an attack plan ihat 
hits the best chance of Isolating, end/or cap Hiring, 
and/or making undefendable the two key cities. 
For this job you have only the troops shown on 
the diagram PLUS; S factors of paratroops at 
Jj.aa and Ranger Group "A" tn Sea Zone "D." 
hlo optional rules are used and no air transport 
available. To complete the contest entry: Fill in 
the chart completely; on the DIAGRAM, mark 
with an "X." all eriemv units AV'd and mark the 

location of the P&ra units with the notation x? 
where V stands for the number of factors in that 
square. Mark the ranger's location with the letter 
"A." Do not include anv notation ss to move- 
ment after combat Because of the complex 
nature of this contest, neatness and legibility will 
be very important Contest closes October 3lst, 


Headlines of 3 Best Article* 















Slroat Addn 


The Question Box 

BLITZKRIEG questions and answers to date: 

Q. Must cities in ft* opponent's country be 

taken by the Minor City Capture Table? 

A. No. Merely move into tlw city. 

'.». Ii the itl ■ •-!■■.■: j i' is autcunalit victory against 

a unit next to ei city square, curt he tisc the city 

for pnrl movement or air transport rhat same 


A, Yes. 

0- May SAC bombers be used La 3id in Uie 

reduction of Minor Country cities? 

A. V<s, This is an exception to Ihc rule that SAC 

iltatkt taiuiuL be rnadt! in conjunction willi 

ground forces. At least 4 factors of ground troops 

mil si ato join in the aiHdf. 

Q, May a unit retreat several through 


A. Yes. Mountain square* do no; alTect retreats. 

Also t infantry may retreat through several woods 

squares, but armor and artillery arc eliminated if 

forced into woods. 

Q. Which citios are ports? 

A. Tta* eities on the sta; ihe-rc flr£ no "inland 

puits" in rJu't&fcrieK, 

Q. SJoce Airborne urdts FBUJt hn flmnpcd within 

20 squares- of thy tily they flew out of, can. they 

be air transported 10 a friendly city and Chen 

flown out and dropped within JO squares? 

A. Ho. 

CJ. Can K.ajigerj invade on a beach separate from 

Lhe one being invuded by friendly Infantry units 

on the nan turn? 

A. Yes. lhe landing of Kaugei unit* is. not 

considered an "invasion." The statement in the 

Buttle Manual that say? " -subject to the one 

invasion pet Turn rule." Refers only to file fuel 

thai Ranger units cannot land on a beach that 

was just [AVatrUJ by enemy troops. 

Q. What happens when a SAC' attack h made 

against ii dty containing hnth ground: ;md air 





Each coupon ft worth 25 cents. How 
ever, no less than 4 coupons can b$ uied Si any 
one purchase. Offers received acmmpanitid by 
three coupons or less win be returner! unfitted. 
Any number above 4 may be used sn any single 
purchase, Wo pftotoitea pieaie . . . 





A. The amcxer has two options: (i) he may 
attack the- ground tutitc only. If he succeeds in 
li-.-Mioynik! all piuiuid ujsi Lt.. all air units are also 
destroyed. If one ground factor remains, the air 
units are untouched. [1} Lie piay soak off against 
the ground units (at no worse than 1-6) and 
attack the dty'* supply capacity, [f the city'a 
■.■.;;.■;-!■■ capacity drops below the number of 
aircraft factors in that city, the excess aircraft 
factors are immediately eliminated, for example, 
if there <ue 8 TAC factors in a city that is 
bombed by 7 SAC factors, the city's supply 
capacity drops to S, and only S TAC factors can 
then be supplied, Thrus of the TAC factors are 
immediately eliminated. 

Q. Jf a unit uses two unconnected rtfitdi In its 

move, may It carry over unused fractions of road 

moves from one road to another? 

A. Yes. 

(J During Prepare tor Play T may cither side place 

units in At Sea boxes that are not adjacent to 

their Home Countries? 

A, Yes. 

Q. On the Order of Appearance Card H aire units 

listed after "On Board" separate from units listed 

After 'Turn 1 "7 

A. No. All units above (he line on the card [""On 

Board" AND "Turn I" umts> iire placed on the 

board during the set up. 

Q. Jfiisl what is a "friendly" Minor Country eity. 

and how docs such, a slate sITect air transport, 

supply, etc.? 

A, A "friendly 11 city is one that may be used for 

supply, Liir and sea transport, air base, etc. All 

Major Country cities arc nonsidered "friendly" 

when they are captured and under the complete 

control of one or the other side. Complete 

control means! that no enemy units are in or 

adjacent to the city. 

Physical capture of a Minor Country eity does 

not necessarily mean that that eity hecomes 

friendly. Aft citic* in a particular Minor Cmintry 

must bu cupiuic-d (with iht; Minor Country City 

Capture Table) in order for iuty of litem to be 

considered "friendly," Which side captures the 
cities does not bear on whether or not they can 
be considered friendly. 

For example, on Blue's firs! turn, he captured 

V-20, Efc-25, M-14 ; U-ll, und X-27, None of 

these cities may be coji&ideied fiieudly at thta 

point since CC-15 was not captured, Red r in his 

turn, captured CC-15 with the aid of airmobile 

and invasion troops On Blue'^ eiext turn t all 

cities in thai minor country are friendly to the 

side occupying them, and can be used for sea 

irovcment, supply, ft& 

Q May units that Have entered At Sea zone B on 

tlieii previous turn, uivade a beach in iu-rio A or 

zone C in this turn? 

A. Yes 

Q. Can FTRs intercept pararrfldps.? 

A. Mo. 

Q. Can FTRs intercept homlwrs alftng their flight 

path or only at ih* targetV 

A. Only at the target, 

Q, Can paratroops go to sea'' 

A. No. 

Don't expect The postal people to lenvird Ttw 
General. YQU will have Lp notify our subscription 
livpartment vach time you move. :;ii -i.iy ent MY 
vdij: nrtriress label and Attach it to this lorm, W y 
cannot be rtipontible lor iuim bhiuped because of 
an addreis change. Pleas notify lu nne month prior 
[[» otiangs nl adrirut dai#. 


OLD Addren 

FnHHFR rily 







HteVs experiencing growing pains. More subscribers means more Want Ads. We fust don't have the space 
for every subscriber to wax rhetcrtcat as to the past To make ft easier, and mere meaningful for alt 
concerned, vye introduce the Mini-ad, Ait you do is strike out the words provided oefow that do not 

1) Print your city and state in Box A above. 

2] Cruss out words and pbrases below not applicable. 

31 Insert copy where required on Wnm provided. 

4) Print your name and address whew indicated. 

We oano&t list wed lie items for sale or trado. Interested 

parties must write you direct for complete details. 

I am: novice, average, expert player of: high school, college, 
adult age desiring: FTF and/or PBM opponents for 
Also seek 


members for. 


. Will trade or sell games. Please reply to 

NAME (in all caps) 





Ait Ads must be one spsctet printed form; those r&CGivcd that arc not wi/i not be accepted. 

2nd Annual Wargamers' Survey 

In conjunction with OPERATION CONTACT, a referral «rwe ioitistet* by the International Fecftratioo 
of Wargaming, The General is, re-printing the following survey. Its purpose is to determine the ben 
direction in which to move for presenting improved Servians to the wnrgamer. In order to guarantee 
maximum resrirtnisfi, r\I Confest 45 entries will be voided unless ficcpmpariied by tins sucvey. A yhuLuslat 
or handwritten copy is all that is requited when fotwatdinu. this survsy with your contest entry. 

a) The three wargaming publications, in order of preference, that 1 feet best satisfies my waroaininoj 
interests flfe: II 2) 

blThe three persons, in order ol achievement, I think have maija substantial contributions to wargaming 

within the last 12 months are: t| 2) 


c) The person who I feel has marie the singular most important contribution to the specific wrergaming 

field is; 1r Boardgaming t 2) niplomafy p 

3) PreWWl Miniatures , ,4JPostWWl Miniatore^ , 

dJThe three wargaming organizations, in order of echievement, I feel have contributed significantly to 

wargaming within the last 12 months are: 1] ^ ^^ 

21 3) 

et The 5 Authors, regardless of magazine, I think have best satisfied my interests through their literary 
efforts within the lant 12 month? are: 11 

7) ,31 

11 M 

Do NOT sign your name Upon receipt, this survey will be detached from your contest entry and added 
to all other similarly anonymous surveys that will be tallied on October 15, 1S71, Results will he 
reprinted in the Nov-Oec 1971 issue. The only personal information we ask of you is in the following; 

...gj Years in school. 

.hi Y 

ears in wargaming . 

. , il Major inreresr — number 1 

f) Age_ 

thru 8 in order of preference (1 being first.]: 

Buardgame Play, „Boardgamc Design, Diplomacy, _N&w Games & Variants. Pre WWI 

Miniatures. Post WWI Miniatures, __Navel Miniatures, Other, listed here 

PAGE 15 

JfnfiltpatwA fapcrt 

CONTEST NO. 44 was a bit of a "bummer." IL 
seems as if somewhere between the rough draft 
and the final printed version the words "with 
supply No. 2" were deleted after "15th Panzer 
Division at Msus , , ," Obviously, this made quite 
a part of the contest obscure. Disaster was 
avoided, however, because enough of our readers 
are acute enough to see through these difficulties. 
Below is the correct answer assuming the "with 
supply No. 2" had been included (which quite a 
number of our contestants assumed anyway): 
Attacks at 3-1 on 4/5 and 9A/20 means that 
Tobruch can only be defended by two 1-1 -6's 
which can easily be overcome on the next 
German attack. This contest illustrates a common 
weakness found in bad "Tobruch tactics." The 
British disposition looks relatively strong because 
of the interlocking positioning of the light units. 
But the final purpose of any tactics should be to 
buttonup the heavy units the turn before the 
June reinforcements. The aforementioned German 
attack precludes this. The game is all but over 
after this point. 

mitted the winning solution and from these a 
random drawing was held to pick the ten win- 
ners. They are: L, R.McAnemy, Silver Spring, 
Md.; Mike Loomis, Santa Rosa, Calif.; Chuck 
Jensen, Chicago, III., W. Lee Penn, Darien, Conn.; 
Bnan Libby, Portland, Me.; George Paulik, 
Manistee, Mich.; Les Lightstone, Southfield. 
Mich.; Thomas Fisher, Elizabeth, N.J.; William 
Searight, Seattle, Wash,; Robert Harmon, South 
San Francisco, Calif. Congrats and a full dress 
salute to these gentlemen. 

CONGRATULATIONS also to authors of the five 
best articles lead by Prof. J. E. Pournelle's "Sim- 
ulating the Art of War - Part III"; followed by 
Daniel Kronmeyer's "What? Another Stalingrad 
Variant"; Dennis G. Mehaffey's "Panzerblitz 
MSM"; Mitch Gniadek's "A Look at an Old 
Favorite"; and co-authors John S. Hathaway and 
Harley Anton for "Waterloo Analysis. 1 ' 

HIGHEST BIDDERS in the Auction of Col 
lector's Items obviously went berserk in their 
quest to complete their library of vintage games. 
Led by J. Richard Wagner's highest overall bid of 
$35.00 for Civil War, other winners were as 
follows: The remaining two Civil War games went 
to Theodore D. Fosdick $30.01 and James 
Eggerman $26.76. Both Dispatcher games went to 
Norris Morton $7.00 and Kevin Hohensee $6.00; 
the Battlefield version of Gettysburg went to 
James T. Reilly $15.51; both Management games 
went to Carl Kotck $15.00 and Louis Moynihan 
$15,00; the two Nieuchess games went to William 
Spahn $15.00 and Jules F. Koetsch $8.75; one 
original Verdict went to James T. Heslin $10.00, 
the remaining game was found to be incomplete 
thus not sold; both Verdict II games went to 
Peter Valeri $15.50 and James Eggerman $14.24; 
four JZ Advertising games went to Arnold Smith 
$15.00, Stephen K. Howard $10.13, Sidney 
Sackson $7.32, and Thomas L. King $7.01; no 
bids were received for Imagination and Word 
Power. All lower bids have been returned. 

"CONVENTIONS 72" is Spartan international's 
newsletter detailing all pertinent info on upcom- 
ing conventions. A five-issue subscription is avail 
able for 50 cents total from SICL Conventions 
West, 4121 Long Beach Blvd., Long Beach, Cal. 
90807; or from SICL Conventions East, 3600 
Chestnut Street, A 119, Philadelphia, Pa. 19104. 
A sampling ol inlo included is the following 
listing of their convention itinerary through the 
next 12 months: New York - Nov. 20, 1971; 
Philadelphia - April 22-23, 1972; East Con. (Fall 
River) - June 23, 4, 5 r 1972; South Con. 
(Birmingham) - July 8-9. 1972; L. A. Con. V - 
Aug. 12-13, 1972; and Capital Con. - Washing- 
ton - August 1972 (date to be announced). In 
addition, Mini-cons are tentatively scheduled in 
Los Angeles during November, February, and 
May 1972.. . 

THE MSC put together another successful con- 
vention in MilCon III which was held July 10-11 
at St. John's, Jamaica, New York. Total atten- 
dance for the two day event was almost 350. 
Eye-witness accounts said the displays and tour- 
naments involving miniatures was truly impres- 
sive. The AH division tourny was the largest on 
the East Coast. It was, of course, no surprise to 
learn that AH staff member and convention 
representative. Randy Reed, won first prize in the 
AH division. The convention was so successful 
that plans were immediately made to hold 
another convention in mid-winter. But the MSC 
leadership is undecided as to whether Christmas 
or the end of January is the most convenient 
time to hold this new get-together, If you have 
an opinion or preference drop MSC a line at 
89-67 Mollis Ct. Blvd., Queens Village, NY 

LEN LAKOFKA writes: "The first Mount 
Prospect convention is now history. Ninety war- 
gamers enjoyed the one day convention which 
featured a twenty player naval competition, A 
Napoleonic "Little Wars" series of battles and 
other miniatures battles." Over $100.00 worth of 
prizes and trophies were awarded at this first 
(hopefully) annual affair. The first annual 
"Gateway to-the-West" convention was held in St. 
Louis on July 17, The IFW featured s number of 
AH games and armor miniature tournies which 
netted the winners over $150.00 in prizes and 
trophies. The seventy-five gamers who attended, 
look forward to next year's event tentatively 
slated for the third or fourth weekend in July. 
Reporting on the 4th Annual Lake Geneva 
Convention, Lakofka related, "the two day event 
greeted 241 games on Saturday and 157 addi- 
tional on Sunday plus unnumbered visitors who 
came to gape. Over $300 in prizes were 
awarded," In 1972, the convention has grown to 
the extent where two halls will be used at Lake 
Geneva, along with more events and larger cash 


DON GREENWOOD has published his long- 
needed Stalingrad Strategy Booklet. This fifty 
page manuscript represents the first in a projected 
series of Booklets that will eventually cover other 
AH games. In this first effort, articles on Stalin 
grad have been gleened from other wargaming 
journals and the best of these have been 
presented in this mimeoed manuscript as covering 
all the aspects and controversies of Stalingrad. 
The Stalingrad Strategy Booklet is available from 
Don Greenwood and his Panzerfaust Publications 
for $1.50 postpaid. Mail to: 124 Warren Street, 
Sayre. Pa. 18840. 

announced they will increase their prices to 
$7/yr. for dues and $6/yr. for Subscriptions. But 
for the increase of the extra dollar the IFW plans 
next year to hold live national conventions, 
publish the International Wargamer as a 24-page 
mag, and increase the number of free tournies 
and games. Interested? Write: IFW, 1806 N, 
Richmond, Chicago, III. 60647. 

IT HAS BEEN BROUGHT to our attention, with 
some partisan delight no doubt, that Interest 
Group Baltimore wargamers have been cornering 
the market on East Coast Convention tournament 
victories. They have copped first place honors in 
five major tournies since last Thanksgiving includ- 
ing Fall River and MilCon III. Plans are currently 
underway for their Third semi-annual Open 
House to be held during the Thanksgiving holi 
days this year. II you would like to learn more 
about this unique group write: IGB, 4118 Glen 
Park Road, Baltimore, Md. 21236. 

S & T MAGAZINE, in issue No. 23, once again 
shows that it is the best bargain for the Simula- 
tions Gamer. Its literary subject matter broadens 
with every issue; from the very fine "Soviet and 
German Weapons & Tactics" article by James F. 
Dunnigan to one on "The Dark Ages Military 
Systems Profile," by Stephen B. Patrick. A 
re-review of Luftwaffe is included in this issue 
also. Their earlier review resulted from "crossed- 
wtres" in that it was prepared without the benefit 
of the correct set of rules. S 8t T apologized for 
this mis-assumption and will see to it that it 
doesn't happen again. 

WE HAVE BEEN INFORMED that the National 
Invitational Tournament has begun its recruit- 
ment campaign. Any wargamer interested in a 
new type of tournament play should look into 
the N.I.T. All entrants rate themselves and then 
are matched with opponents of equal ability. 
Entrants play six games in each tourny; writeTim 
Fox, 58 Cutler, Grand Rapids, Mich. 49507. 

BECAUSE IT EMPHASIZED the 9 Principles of 
War, students in the Department of Military 
Science, U. of California at Davis, have been 
experimenting with Blitzkrieg. U.S. Army Capt. 
Justin R. Hughes, Military History Instructor 
there, claims the experiment "was reasonably 
successful" in getting those points across. A fellow 
instructor, CPT Art Hotop, was so impressed with 
the games' use that he authored a feature article, 
"Teaching Methods," which appeared in the 
Army ROTC Newsletter nationally circulated hy 
HQ, U.S. Continental Army Command, Fort 
Monroe, Virginia 23351 

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rFppn*u r nEi fr>r Plili-ki^qr ^jfl rJufurvi 7 Grrcn 
At HS-. Bulft.n1. fj;74g ■JiJjL.^Jta 
I nil irtiatt nllVSi Of IiljuI KhkKtl fttc iJrtill.fl* 

rrr ■ndf'wf fijm Dsuxnimi* r^r ak. s^t..!, 

BM," H Hlil j. -Po.4l.nLl, 4.1.1,!, BliIj- Miilftiv, 
W-UJFJ-, tfms- JffPB KJFldFy 17 J^rw* dd. P*j- 

i wdy. Mh.t mwa aji-»j] 

Tjim irtflift ;.|j;.:" 7 -l J'J ' > u-; JL'njilHJ; I'TF il>d 
l-IAI ,.-■;■. -.I-.- ii -. Fr« t^i-niiir ■'.!>..■ S i ,.- 

L>Tfiri WHI CFwir uf vat pmm rta-fcl D 

(jliFhJr I7RT fuli-ci Dcjjbuiri. FrliJijJjji 4AL-M 

1 mh ■maps, rUilt sl fSHtlr Mt dCunniE Y"i\ 
tnd.'or PBM op[«Fi?4itt <<i! BlilsJtrFtt. '^mWtffliU:, 

in;..- *iii iij-Ii' ar -i-.i I'm Mjiiipnu^iir 
fciMOpm. aijp _ihin v«<r4 lljjsiivn p#i— i .»t h 

HiutUJJri 4ftJjq ?..<1 54J7 

I .un ■iillrt,. .il: -.1 --■; i-it i'.',,-..-!.: il , Ilii Cjih.ilif 
(_)_fl R_U- iF^bm -Ffrrr* |[„ c |J4in LTLr-LbLt 

M.Lii 4p:j'J5j;-j4ii? 

[ fjjVl LTtriir pll r ST Ol .lluH tjW il«-i"|F|.( F5^1 

HiBpuflrnu for SitLiFiH Jd , WtESflo?, Afruw KurpL 
t^nird Aaail. Ji KMQ Hottijt L'fir- H. Mi(4Ufain 
4h?ff» W1-»<TTJ 

I w ■»- k* plflyir Ljf It 1'nrJi Krhonl i|~iiinf. 

t&M orpo-yisin'* "or f!rtiv*imj. s»i\n&*i\ \m 

HiTElklL..* 1511 Fcriiibjlr __u_(LiLr. M.lJllU-L. 

4-^0X17 r.Kn344--fliOI _ _ 

[ im iftJiifc jdat/ci al* ___flc ad nil ttt -dsdiirq 
FTF upEHinsnn, (at 1 914 1_Mtf ll. A-'.ii'. 

BuhIi!, at DVT *-'i Mni«. Al_ wcii rprnmb^ F^. r 
fpmiiFnt <h>t.. Lrle Mipilm Jj'il US-Vf'Fv UH 

F.rk. UisltiifjFi 4.S2J7 LU-J4JJ 

I im tkiyil? pliL«i o( -rnllr^E ijjo dnlrlrj P9_ 
djopDisFiii fuc HE, Bltuf, AlL. Jun C-ruHbi f }& F 
Til ml Rn>"» [Ilk. U-l 4JUM7 } [tTHft-nSPI 
I mn ihrjj_!T p_»« Oif tulJctS- _ ili^lrifrt POM 
nfjCidlrcliii fill EiLSi (TouTiliUlilzJill InScl Optic. 

Aftc ■_ mcmTFco (or EFW rftMAerd- SocUir 

W,|l MA ar kII fjn-.e .. 'I ltfi I Hum 1 1 If l'we_l 
SjUl[ >t> Hiilii, Mir;li. 4Ht8j 

I un ■vrnjir' pLi>St rJI High «lltl«i *: JSlLTIfli; 
TTF .ridlVlF PBW nfirmnrnli fnr AFrjin. W^lrrjim 

■ rd iUhn. In tjfhlilnnr IH»I H.rrlrn rim \r 
aHlUlScM. ri_h. 4&01J 137.|lWfl 

I ins J.VU3JEC t.^b-n plircr h _u'1 _¥ dcdrlnt 
InaJjJ ijppo**)!!* i'>r tvunnciiuj. Uulse. w Lap. 
(\Nrti. In l_nlyii„ iw; rMviiM Wivkii, Hluh. 

4^Wi JSt-Tiih ^^_^___^__ 

[ im ripen pkiyFr 4»f wluii i^f J 1 1 Iring I- ' F- 
imdJiir FPM 0<»]>nnsfiLi r-oi iny iir.wjy |invc 
Wd| lm\r fir vll |H— ri 4l«|nk « Milium «**« 
Kiili. Afc _.. Uii__iul_ Mtiiu. j.HB 

i iji. .i-'CL;fc iiii.^r of '.'■ jjj-r dciiiiNi rrr 

S.-Bpprifrl'i f^rr ill AH fumsi III' I dch'l hjvi II UK 
— n u_ ,-..-. ■.'."!' I r- -■-.- ■ . -.-.I _nic.i. I : :i. !..i,i 
KHIfiMf MttSI (.'-Sdjl- A.». HtraemtiLiTlt. Minn. 

I im ii^f^s pisysF of Fi'jin w-h.-ji jjji 4*4innjj 
FTP apdror PBM eppaprnut iof F-JjUii, 54^rnJ., 

LVFriy roi'ao, uenaifiE B__tn_, n.n* Hun 

ln-.n-n-1-r ' *4 ". M" _U#_ „ I' ml Mn- 131(3 


1 im SYt/tsfv pla^r of Jdult J*.- d-t^lfifll, PBM 
[ifipopfnw Tas L" Cjiui. Riy iKmcn niJ hoces 

frKl— . Mo. rjjij^j j | J-yj i - rijai 

I tm itsnjs pLiyff ul tiitlsfr jfc dstirlP:)! ITf 

jjiJi'lti PDM u-ppuntnti tbl WW_r-V _M-<j 

Ffekl. IKUifl F 11 'if -.rrr ftaj-l.nMi Ml. iSJjllT 

J tint jici^fE iSiliytr ol tvWttL m dcaifij+t FTf 

.-ntl'br PHM EipPLTtirr. 1 ! lar L>Djy. SLtllii tntd, 
SldlliL- Oi ilii.jJ..-. Alnku turpi. 1914, HlilrUn^ 
IkAtllAj Fnd Ptnis-jdliri ft_ Uade or Mil 
tvunr-E- KrnriFiii Kuui ;r;;i (XlipiuphI |.«i:j(f Sl. 
LojjJi, MiitOLHi 6JI43 3i<-SU.|o!7 
I <ni nrrafr iilajr^r nl high ip- ilriirinf 
FTF njFjinnrnUi Feu AK Bull*. IeHIjpsI. PitlliiT, 
_jlt».Jk Milr. Mitlirm [fl|1 l_M Benri-^ Di 

lh>wlFi L rtfblniu 'MX- *8»HrjH;. 

■ up tApsFi rljy^r H SSS mt: _S_q Wa 
oppo-iKnli lor ill WWII Ij/iJ ianrfi To-m OkiOn 
KJU N ' 1:4 a'( Onuru, NfbniJsi bKfcJi 


I iffl (uNee* fLiyo nf his.ii i^JippJ ajK desFrini 
PBM sippni— nn 4nr Uuipr. SflTari Tpflrj- Kfish 
1* SlnuFbcuy Hill Ail. Htllulilr. til MjJ 41: 

I dill CtLinL |ILC1JI[> uT lj|lt lilmul Bfr JrMlin 

FTF gppopMitt fp» ill hum AEk n+k ir fcim*- 
lksi jjhi t«U rariUIWn, Vuinam ind Nu^lftir Wjj 
-nl lulJilsar b»pk> Jmtlo A4HU*afl Bon 79 
Htvpk Mi. RSwl MpnlrtU*. NJ U704 S aJ74M?i. 
E irn iwrt)c pLjfBE pf biIjIe df|H d-nJrinjj rTP 
.minir PBM ripporrnd foi Pinirrh lln. pptr 
BldUlU 16 _k__ Kind Mieuk_f. jVJ f>7A4) 

j 0j-3-jll4illl 

Per hIc KrKiirnl. oril> u_d iFutt. ciitUtiit 

^LddiUnn. Mj.Ll nil Jzllcr ATI mull unn^r^ 
[uumpllr Hell — *1»T 1 1 — UjcU- Jif- ^ptUB?. 

M,J. <HT?J. 

I wn IMnif puy.1 FTF ippUTMPtt (ur UI AK 
"iTiarFH'E Thoirijj- llitiri Froulvolfcr Air. Ftrii> 
nuk*n u Ntw JMwyOHl4W baJdmj 

WmlFEl ApimnrnK f"r Blilir, 

Will be Q_n_, An/ j-utti _<fl 
Ctiul_ B__b 4LT4 Ri^n Uii- 
Nrt» Jr.i_T Q7-W7 

P»P-rti|(r a , AK 

,.',. „..I.L 'Willie 

ir t_U Pilrr_Ei 

1 ami ST-fvis pLit'i'( S 
mvil PEM [i ppLiiE-fiU 
Fa-ftiL[i >«nn Girrfti 
w J. n^iHutTs-juo^ 

1 L-oll/sr 
[or AR., 
H M(r. 

lEp- dS-JLFHVJt F lj- 

S%Ch_, W-Un. 

MhM lA-lirt. 

FuiiCEtrLjId jinJ >J_il. IEiLMCi.1 HH^n 253 74 St 

Buy R_p. Bruufcfrn. S.\ 1 1 ^W gfrHBO 

I ut ■'rtn*: pbfer ol 3iiih KVH ■*' dt'innf 

FTF and jm-vIk fHU oppujiriLs lui PtfljwIrLili, 

J UlLlAlt. kd^J,, '.-J t! y'eiilt. VrUI ( rtOir- tlrrLiJk 
SLtpKrn C'ay.-ad ■!= SL> CUl-tMri -W Fin-itl'i'ii, 

N.Y JUIfl IJJ".j.4:^ 

1 <TFI ululi tji - 'IrMI'TiH FTF -rrjl 1'DM iw-rnVn 
lot 5j?>n#|i InlccH-.tTiHtJ Coinprlifjon Ll'^iif 
AI.ei Ai.jlisIujiji. 113& Oia-jii Fki*) B*n_<4l 

tiv n im 

I mat ■unjt p!it~ ■— _i uJiv ibcrjniti E-TF 
,-..;- .--.l'm- for "■ I ■■-.. B1i!j 13 Dty. ■:.-... A.C 
Bill Stppu RS J«!lsfMiP Ave 1_bi !«-._. N.r 

117)3 3T7.Q3»i „____ 

Wouhf Itlr ifL lUrt'-i !|i1.Ln|L)inilv nti ml-IUli u?n fflE 
EE_1r iff hrlt FBM u*!i _ f.nH-1 lie) Wkm 
I7LM4 IM) Am. Jjjiuiu:i. rVY 11414 7?>l^ 

<>PP0tMnii far 13 EJiT, FBIili Atso FTF miy AH 
mmf Htrvia Lrn 149 Unia* av< Ll 
Homkun komi. WM 4lfJQ vtHJWJi 

L jeIi urttgr rjijyn nf" iJuir^E ilrriJlof KTF 
nrjpmirnE. fm rklfil^ CnH lyJuirj. ^Ijf|inp«d 

|jn-k TIhifpf lu-Jiwr Rojd Nljirsn, h).T 1 31 13 


1 irn ciiwrt [ilaur U m3\ *f: l1ljiji;iJ ITT 
op£WFejiti (or ill All [Villi A Cjxiicri 4j0 

PdhjLFn I_ Nsn Ru-iclk, !V.V [-D3UJ. J3J-?.'4fi. 
T id! »<-_(« playci PI ijkjjl W drdPHA FTF 

oppiirsnis Tot 411 Ah unriH Jclln Hmnti fu 
H_l SQlh AEf Si.'L , M ■■ Ifjl^l VU!HB77 

I r V, !.-(.,■■ pi III' 'I'' ;:■-.'! ■.!■.■.■-■' -■•■ -J. ■ I: .'I. 

FtF oppTJnrnu tm ISI4,lFV.tmF. Buljjf, Pi-Ui'x, 
' ■■! !■ I- -..- J. ii--. ■ , * tt T^Nfil VFiri. N.Y 

JPuJ4 SIU?'1Q[i5 

L o;r. itcijic pL) rr tif hijh jtjiirnJ ift Jcjirmi 
FTF-" ur fBM iL.ppenLnti lor all ft' W 1 * ftf WD 
tuiniwun wur J.m(i knin H^jgirru- A J HAmifll 
_j4iCf __<i<n| i. WW jftMTj! iQSBj! W1|_i;? 
t Ira ivr'Ht pljlsr Cl( L-nlhrw Affr dortipa. FtF 
iippiTiiirn (i Trn «jfl (Tirrir^ rM-ir1«Ty> HdfTnrtml 
Ptttoi 1 Lfuf-n. !;t ii™,» NV lu'.toJ 

IrVj 1-77-JfJ. 

L Jin n_c pll(ir uf M,Oi rtli^jl 4fF Jpauvi* 
r|K;n(- |QT JMJlJtt Ai_W. W.lsTltJ.j, 
P Hl.L; rtj WiR i F_i r jwrit i iFiinia O trnm 1 0* 
ftnjjjWd Pc1hj.m. N "i IOU0J- riJMvJ->. 
I (ni . Exnln |,iliynr LLf d^jh elJioii! tgt deiErirLjt 
fBH opp-inami for Afrlkj, K*—* t**ETil Sfild* 
prjjOpTH fl-— rj.pp. faf, tSd Polidim, 7J S" 
13676 JiHfiMHJ. 

I in mn I"l»irr nf ulull. ^ Jniiirif fir 

ifid.i'ur rOJJ- opjxnitn.u Tor I9i4. BukibLlL. Gsi 
|h AIL. An;i4 IL Citv V,rt W^; 7*3 CCiXnk 

i*kwj Srticn-KUh.TJ.y i:3W ) .HtV4t(-«'J 
T nin n-mitx i" j . if ---i hgh scJhkJ ijtc dcurini 
FTF ..--1,1 .■; PKH nfi .-i-.-i.!.. lur FiP"rti>iEr ind 
fi-Oulu,^. Alio "**k rn*niiL«fL roi AAiWk Ouc. Win 
irjdf ar _il gLinu. tiwsi VauK Tudor Hill 

Hrrcn— 1j FPil-. N V . tl 1 V QSJUlfl 

I Jin jui-Fitr iitivi'i Qg li-jh jkt dnirLi-in 
j'USi .i; |. i-. Foe flf|ilT|iM|J| , [)-[»ji- EEllit 
Will pf _-JI R m_, Ed««rs1 VoFTHtk, 12H| 

yFTHIrn H it Valliy See-jiff., a.Tf | ISJIIJ. 

J ilr. iivrci:.!? pt.y^T til ln£ri ilJWpI «t dE_ln« 
PflU DffMUn fat fl-ne, W* OiMlci And<F- 
■^in IL' l^ji.'. M Mn-ji.niiinii. HT W! 
I in *»rii|r pl.);rr r>r irnHrjn- rfr d'^lrnj FTF 
__,'ur FBM up-u^i-rflU III BU_, G-Emk. 1>-D*j-. 

r\pcu, TdeI IS Abu -wtk immtfrt fus new ilpb 
m [!.!'■. .riv uu, L'l-I M.f (,*- 770D-A fosiifss 

iJt Ktlsjtrh, S.C .I7ftLff-, a^-.^H.' 

I im svtnf* pityn o-r lii(li wbool de-iFiEit If I b 
—Uli'flt PWH BppO„|IU fpf *U~. ti-tpi—l, t>tf, 

a-h, P-Piy, ivr4 r p-iliiii, + r a a earn. M- &- 

FlfmLrti *td WooiIiIlHf Akrop. i'Jhln 441M 


I bfti nLiri.i' 7I1J.1" bi( l-iiIIf—- ifr rlt_p4p[ FTF 

l__U 1"QM cp»iH-nli lor f-Bliii. FTF (u AX. 

D-Mii.t Ji..hlji„l M_«dy. U-Boad. _ 
Rojl Pish I3J5 Cc-yvrd Arc: S,W C, n (nn. 0^* 


1 ifti sifwi phv-ft nr c^ljtf.r- at* Ej__m FiF 
oppon^TiLt lor Ik* -LjtllyrthLrB, WFfiKntjc. Will 
sell ginwk ft KikkiRj Liinbrn SO E 17 lb tm "A 1 ' 
CulumijciiL. CUeMf 4MH1 ■ ! J..: r i_.ujvJ 

rrr .jfijh;nc'ii> km ailleu. pjuicitiiiii oiiict. 

dfld^or yaurt Allw tbrll rtcrcibcr* fa. Cubn 
'.Virriimuil: Ulub. W'dl _|| irmlf ur jbinct. H.rolj 
Irnu'i, <_TM J fil-i ir..iii Fd jNorlsrn, fHltc H_0 


I irct esjwn plJiyw i>[ ailief.r afe UMi'niif; PBM 
LipirinFmt ijif fihljir . AH, W.r*J, ■fhI i_fUj 

Rukt Jii___1 J1._ OroD K Bu1liiL.11 til 
Ed, jilt A*t. TrdidLu Puk EjIiiif «l7l 


I *m »v^Fjj; a - f-ltwr cf _ilk|c i|r domnj; PEN 

epponenu for 5C-njd, AK,. fllitt. P|akA|i|j.. 

AlHJ e-.L tttSmb-rri Ini- L'Abn Wa-rjiaiminK Clut^ 
Bob Ne*ji i_5 So. BeLwju Urrvctwlj UK. 

Ohio *4I H. 

I irn tVi.rig<i pla>*l Of I'llUSfS Ifjt HeltrLPJ r*BM 
iiprnmrnlv (it r^rfiik. ItiFrpi llrl ly^hiFfX. Wiln. 
Imi F. 1 Miruvy 74 rV-nlrin An- Vrunpliwn. 
Ohio 445 I j 

I d.m iittui pJai^i if hi*h ^_?ul »t JfrHni 
fit- i-ppptKnU Iflt AniK, WntSftOn, Mrfwiv 
Will Envds 4f wil nrnE^ Jim i.'wrt« I (.Of IWnald 

fcnoLity.Ciili 746UI _g£ggW 

■ Jim ■vcrifF. plj icrr of iM-lkfe 4* desirtrjj PBM 

UpililniiiLi fui AK A Kirtr IcnJ) Rranan T AjIittlf 

gfJS IfilfiATt.Aliwrjj fL JWOl 

I irn uierifr. o1j,>le il l,ti.k s^iKvl .ii- ilciiiiiii'FTF 
uppAt-hii Far £-Gr_, JullinJ AK 1914 P. of 
BiLfs. Arii-ii. 1 BlilArqt, Lrllvshurj. BirJuruaa 
GtftiBrr &t\nxk l'i FiLFFnhaitK- Ln L jinpliill Pj. 

ITOJ l Hi-i-JIS 

1 pm evper piiyer ur juIdli i|h a^^tn PBM 

1— E*"i_— - fur Cm fit Mlks SrwfW 34}4 Lli^iLy- 
B i» r.ih^nii.Fi ITJ ihl 

I jun ihj*m plijrci Hjf ctillF»jr ij.f dmiiriii^ FUW 
iirrf-^r-s i' ! ' ril.u_l|fflj MKf r|. .:-. , will tti.y 
iinwiL fljtl _VfnrfllAJ mTTT flllllMll A*£- CjCcllir 

I im FFfHB/ pJiyn nf hijsli _(__ ir ilnn-i-ncj 
Ft F aji-l'df CB H i]ppt>ns<i1s fci' JJI AH ^iifurMt. 
ftWI BB PtlM Sill. AIM INlC irifO|T|lllk>ll on 
rwii-AH IH-^BfK RofMii UJ.iir.ruji-lu t4l Grn«. 
SE N PBjF|4]F>lri,^"V lr>FU7fJT.rW0 1 7^-*S2___ 
t jjn rxpEiE iilJj-cr Of aJL.ll 1|e (2'7 ytl oU) 
ilubiriiiK FTF upjKinrJFE. I'll WilikT ^ I7K. ■!■! 
ibflwr All |ihk> AlAra _tt>4*iU 57 JO tliwcr 
dsls Wtr-1 Biyiidt. IS.i I I JM l\ Z 1 1H- 1 \ W 
I am CBpol nlyyrr ol «1li|l ;if:r J«inrrjj JJflM" 
oppoiKnu (or lokLFmnMnr tlrtiicnii. sl'h-fr rid*. 
WiEi inns or Mil gamp* Bnirr Masinn tl AsJirrH 
Fl. tifliriti, HV I grWjltgliW 

I Mn .«cnir [ilaycr uf 3u|]]l h_Iejh.iI jmf dnjiinj 
FTT inr_»ii.n_ fur &A1j-J. MHitr. Bblz. 1914. 
T.lEI-.; JI. Roht n WakoiE Mi. SIjiii Rd, t'ornEn. 

FT.Y 3 IT;? T.]^\lf. —-^— m - 

I *« «*p«Jl t— FjHf 6f OOlhUt «f> dHUVd. Uf 
flppn-rtenui f-ur WHoFJu-j. AT. Kbit , L ■.-■i-'i,. D*- 
plmyri-nr, T*e- 14, Ct«4». PoUp4 I9M-, pal East. , 

Baa. Pp. i .*.lii 

1 111. Jr-rjue pliyo. W 

4.,'. Jr: ir-r 

in Hiitjf 

ppp^rwLEi (o-r Bvl|4 - 

•nEbrr lkIb. Meu-Jl 1 

t* Zii 

I.knyii Av Li«n*is, Fa 


1 J. 11 liEitfju playri ur h^h i Jm: 

J1_.'[J1 FBM UpiKEITIlll- 

1... ■> a 

ndluri*ifrr lrrT 

Kuhkr BM MiIjh Rd. 


n _Jh F* 



noviM flifcc ssF Suit n< dciirini TIT 
(jppoiMBitj iw .jrjjn, T _ wurrluf. Br\iJ» Allifi 
BF-curr Jh"* Mriim*-vLr>¥ Urn PhMin^Ul*, Pmi). 

! 9460 J I S-i J-.H 19J_ 

Will rrulir nr toll |in«. Ailll-cnj Oblitj ;ifi FL 
E_Keii Plhili . Cj 1*1*1 KrA-\7HS. 
r .:■ .ii'-' ... - |-'li-. - ..r>ii[.'i ■ ■?-.. T iii— .1 ---ll i.iie FT! 
iljd/CE PBM i.'|jpiJiirnli El>i EirllyVnun Pimrr. 
9>lilf. Will titdg Cn icll ejbpol Ln- fibre. 376 

rtr/tiPMu ruai. . (Vim 

I un ntnti P-vst uf «ulb. ( c «. damnj FTF 
ui.pon-r.t-. lur all AH s>n_« occsipl j.rK«pki- 
Mkliul Irwin 50ft FirhHiuux Libs- Swirtiutiarr. 
Ft K13-7ISU . 

I jjp nnij.1 p^jjif r j.if ni(h schv5Ei| 4 ! JtufLrtj} P&fcl 
•— fjjriidnli f..i P__wt_Ki flitlip Bill U-ft' JOtJL 

K.iy V -llsj Kil '^■lli-.iplLNLt Pn.n llflSft 

lU7fiNli{15 WAhTED 

I i"l s-ltpfil plsypr ol matSfft tqt draniij 40 iptlh 

10 Ih* JWUSmen WHO L31I«J PIP n— f llv |Aimr 

Din tannui » - fttviUiifPn B'hJ<-. 

Fn t«»_ 

I ilii ..e_*c Ktihc-i ol «4k*t _s JtMrtTic FTF 
anJynr FBU npuonrFiU f_ AK. WUo. I_-|IV)V 
iFBir^. J._n Bmjch P.O. Bo* IX. tlrJrfd jjij-lwsi 

Ditj-jMHiin. i-i-, iV'HJ" 

I tm .win* pl_i.-i.-F ^T iiigK itbooi nedVuniii i*tF 
.ndjor FHM opj«ncnl) Tat Lufl-ufT-F 4 Ho Htl 
infjj foe (ini-i. Tinn^nbuij. Bi4irr nf Britain Will 
hify (im— -F rjnwirjr _~e Ttntidl JjlDu E__Sl. 

airlr-Uon.vr ^4jji 

1 jm k-hiJ I'li-L-.i 1 if Eutti _. ilciinpi FTF 
tndnir FDM nfrpufwnti (01 iTJM SttlLntrtd 'red I, 
ITT ill wthsfi. Aim- *j?k mfmbrti fot fajp in 
ML__t *""F"s EKplifn PmjJ HsFpriBii l w p> L«fi(ji 
Ui*-t1Hli_IOii.»iC W407 H-6-JHM- 
I tm svs-mp plavst ol h(h tdroul if s B-<irP5 FTF 
.nd'nrPHM opiMnrrili [04 1i.ll lip id lolip Bkftf- 
tfranldi Osfctw. ltd ^n-Jtu. KC W3MI 


Vfiil tV CAB, l7-Ekj-.i. „-T__]-jr. 833, Bift„ 
B_ta-L Tt.ticv W-Lar.. Hrr_Hi«E, S4_ Stue* 
Miiikil 1a luihot fuddLT A— B iinitky AiidsrKHi M .M-^ rjjiws 

I im hOi-n'ii prt',"Ti ;-[ Hiuti -jil^jl as* dMPLii| ETI 
opponents- (or C«4y , C-Diy. *■.«■ ttrti. 

Flinse-lfl4_ OatU. Wl|nrsdfli»m*i Print T)r— > 
Aftij IA7fi Frrriiwn.rd t_ nulliiiidCrta. __CC, 
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